Malware Analysis Report (AR21-048F)

MAR-10322463-6.v1 - AppleJeus: Dorusio

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Malware Analysis Report
10322463.r6.v1
2021-02-12

Notification

This report is provided "as is" for informational purposes only. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not provide any warranties of any kind regarding any information contained herein. The DHS does not endorse any commercial product or service referenced in this bulletin or otherwise.

This document is marked TLP:WHITE--Disclosure is not limited. Sources may use TLP:WHITE when information carries minimal or no foreseeable risk of misuse, in accordance with applicable rules and procedures for public release. Subject to standard copyright rules, TLP:WHITE information may be distributed without restriction. For more information on the Traffic Light Protocol (TLP), see http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp.

Summary

Description

This Malware Analysis Report (MAR) is the result of analytic efforts among the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and the Department of Treasury (Treasury) to highlight the cyber threat to cryptocurrency posed by North Korea, formally known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and provide mitigation recommendations. Working with U.S. government partners, FBI, CISA, and Treasury assess that Lazarus Group—which these agencies attribute to North Korean state-sponsored advanced persistent threat (APT) actors—is targeting individuals and companies, including cryptocurrency exchanges and financial service companies, through the dissemination of cryptocurrency trading applications that have been modified to include malware that facilitates theft of cryptocurrency.

This MAR highlights this cyber threat posed by North Korea and provides detailed indicators of compromise (IOCs) used by the North Korean government. The U.S. Government refers to malicious cyber activity by the North Korean government as HIDDEN COBRA. For more information on other versions of AppleJeus and recommended steps to mitigate this threat, see Joint Cybersecurity Advisory AA21-048A: AppleJeus: Analysis of North Korea's Cryptocurrency Malware at https://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/AA21-048A.

There have been multiple versions of AppleJeus malware discovered since its initial discovery in August 2018. In most versions, the malware appears to be from a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading company and website, whereby an unsuspecting individual downloads a third-party application from a website that appears legitimate.

The U.S. Government has identified AppleJeus malware version—Dorusio—and associated IOCs used by the North Korean government in AppleJeus operations. Some information has been redacted from this report to preserve victim anonymity.

Dorusio, discovered in March 2020, is a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading software that is marketed and distributed by a company and website— Dorusio Wallet and dorusio[.]com, respectively—that appear legitimate. There are Windows and OSX versions of Dorusio Wallet. As of at least early 2020, the actual download links result in 404 errors. The download page has release notes with version revisions claiming to start with Version 1.0.0, which was released on April 15, 2019.

For a downloadable copy of IOCs, see: MAR-10322463-6.v1.stix.

Submitted Files (6)

[Redacted] (dorusio_osx_v2.1.0.dmg)

21afaceee5fab15948a5a724222c948ad17cad181bf514a680267abcce186831 (DorusioUpgrade.exe)

[Redacted] (dorusio_win_v2.1.0.msi)

78b56a1385f2a92f3c9404f71731088646aac6c2c84cc19a449976272dab418f (Dorusio.exe)

a0c461c94ba9f1573c7253666d218b3343d24bfa5d8ef270ee9bc74b7856e492 (Dorusio)

dcb232409c799f6ddfe4bc0566161c2d0b372db6095a0018e6059e34c2b79c61 (dorusio_upgrade)

Domains (1)

dorusio.com

Findings

[Redacted]

Tags

droppertrojan

Details
Name dorusio_win_v2.1.0.msi
Size 141426176 bytes
Type Composite Document File V2 Document, Little Endian, Os: Windows, Version 10.0, MSI Installer, Security: 0, Code page: 1252, Number of Words: 2, Subject: Dorusio, Author: Dorusio Service Ltd, Name of Creating Application: Advanced Installer 14.5.2 build 83143, Template: ;1033, Comments: This installer database contains the logic and data required to install Dorusio., Title: Installation Database, Keywords: Installer, MSI, Database, Number of Pages: 200
MD5 [Redacted]
SHA1 [Redacted]
SHA256 [Redacted]
SHA512 [Redacted]
ssdeep [Redacted]
Entropy [Redacted]
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
[Redacted] Downloaded_By dorusio.com
[Redacted] Contains 78b56a1385f2a92f3c9404f71731088646aac6c2c84cc19a449976272dab418f
[Redacted] Contains 21afaceee5fab15948a5a724222c948ad17cad181bf514a680267abcce186831
Description

This Windows program from the Dorusio Wallet site is a Windows MSI Installer. This installer appears to be legitimate and will install "Dorusio.exe" (78b56a1385f2a92f3c9404f71731088646aac6c2c84cc19a449976272dab418f) in the “C:\Program Files (x86)\Dorusio” folder. It will also install "DorusioUpgrade.exe" (21afaceee5fab15948a5a724222c948ad17cad181bf514a680267abcce186831) in the “C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Roaming\DorusioSupport” folder. Immediately after installation, the installer launches "DorusioUpgrade.exe." During installation, a Dorusio folder containing the "Dorusio.exe" application is added to the start menu.

Screenshots
Figure 1 - Screenshot of the Dorusio Wallet installation.

Figure 1 - Screenshot of the Dorusio Wallet installation.

dorusio.com

Tags

command-and-control

URLs
  • dorusio.com/dorusio_update.php
Whois

Whois for dorusio.com had the following information:
Registrar: NAMECHEAP INC
Creation Date: 2020-03-30
Registrar Registration Expiration Date: 2021-03-30

Relationships
dorusio.com Connected_From dcb232409c799f6ddfe4bc0566161c2d0b372db6095a0018e6059e34c2b79c61
dorusio.com Downloaded [Redacted]
dorusio.com Downloaded [Redacted]
Description

The domain "dorusio.com" had a legitimately signed Sectigo SSL certificate, which was “Domain Control Validated” similar to the domain certificates for previous AppleJeus domain certificates. Investigation revealed the point of contact listed for verification was support[@]dorusio.com. No other contact information was available as the administrative or technical contact for the domain.

The domain is registered with NameCheap at the IP address 198.54.115.51 with ASN 22612. This IP is on the same ASN as the AppleJeus version 5 "CoinGoTrade" IP address.

Screenshots
Figure 2 -  Screenshot of the Dorusio site.

Figure 2 - Screenshot of the Dorusio site.

Figure 3 - Screenshot of the Dorusio download page.

Figure 3 - Screenshot of the Dorusio download page.

78b56a1385f2a92f3c9404f71731088646aac6c2c84cc19a449976272dab418f

Tags

trojan

Details
Name Dorusio.exe
Size 97682432 bytes
Type PE32+ executable (GUI) x86-64, for MS Windows
MD5 6c36c8efe2ec2b12f343537d214f45e8
SHA1 69eb27395e8f23b592547b69fbaf19ad03d6a89a
SHA256 78b56a1385f2a92f3c9404f71731088646aac6c2c84cc19a449976272dab418f
SHA512 e9e72322983315d7a99e104b0a36e6301b7c78b3e93fc33c03e2e74ea1d5423b852a23a87a8ecaadf33f73ceb03b306d953b197a13542ae436c6b039ec1c00a7
ssdeep 1572864:odJvugr82jf19dUM/1T8+1VJRukUhkmG:odhg6Pm
Entropy 6.674758
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches
97 1b60a6d35c872102f535ae6a3d7669fb7d55c43dc7e73354423fdcca01a955d6
PE Metadata
Compile Date 2019-12-16 00:00:00-05:00
Import Hash bb1d46df79ee2045d0bc2529cf6c7458
Company Name BitPay
File Description Dorusio
Internal Name Dorusio
Legal Copyright Copyright © 2020 BitPay
Product Name Dorusio
Product Version 2.1.0.0
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
f62420692d3492b34a0696beb92d52dc header 1024 2.991122
36430f041d87935dcb34adde2e7d625d .text 78234112 6.471421
ee7e02e8e2958ff79f25c8fd8b7d33e5 .rdata 15596032 6.376243
65c59271f5c2bab26a7d0838e9f04bcf .data 262144 3.484705
00406f1d9355757d80cbf48242fdf344 .pdata 2768896 6.805097
6a6a225bfe091e65d3f82654179fbc50 .00cfg 512 0.195869
786f587a97128c401be15c90fe059b72 .rodata 6144 4.219562
9efa43af7b1faae15ffbd428d0485819 .tls 512 0.136464
60d3ea61d541c9be2e845d2787fb9574 CPADinfo 512 0.122276
bf619eac0cdf3f68d496ea9344137e8b prot 512 0.000000
fb5463e289f28642cc816a9010f32981 .rsrc 102912 4.766115
fb3216031225fdb1902888e247009d0c .reloc 709120 5.476445
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ 8.0 (DLL)
Relationships
78b56a1385... Contained_Within [Redacted]
Description

This file is a 64-bit Windows executable contained within the Windows MSI Installer "dorusio_win_v2.1.0.msi." When executed, "Dorusio.exe" loads a legitimate looking cryptocurrency wallet application with no signs of malicious activity. Aside from the "Dorusio" logo and two new services, the wallet appears to be the same as the AppleJeus version 4 "Kupay wallet."

This application appears to be a modification of the opensource cryptocurrency wallet Copay, which is distributed by Atlanta based company BitPay. According to the website "bitpay.com," “BitPay builds powerful, enterprise-grade tools for crypto acceptance and spending”.

In addition to application appearance being similar, a DNS request for "bitpay.com" is always sent out immediately after a DNS request for "dorusio.com" and the company listed for "Dorusio" is Bitpay.

In addition, the GitHub “Commit Hash” listed in the "Dorusio" application “638b2b1” is to a branch of Copay found at hxxps[:]//github.com/flean/copay-1.

Screenshots
Figure 4 - Screenshot of the Dorusio application.

Figure 4 - Screenshot of the Dorusio application.

Figure 5 -  Screenshot of the "Dorusio.exe" file information.

Figure 5 - Screenshot of the "Dorusio.exe" file information.

21afaceee5fab15948a5a724222c948ad17cad181bf514a680267abcce186831

Tags

trojan

Details
Name DorusioUpgrade.exe
Size 115712 bytes
Type PE32+ executable (GUI) x86-64, for MS Windows
MD5 0f39312e8eb5702647664e9ae8502ceb
SHA1 7e64fb8ec24361406ed685719d8dedc7920791d5
SHA256 21afaceee5fab15948a5a724222c948ad17cad181bf514a680267abcce186831
SHA512 3362ef6d9c24814972c9b59f2e0b57b2c3acdb4d1dd8cd5a240359bf73ae953116ef9b8d217a817ce985ca22b3bcfe01c1085b5e707a36e93a7fae36f94bfc31
ssdeep 3072:LHOKVwaew2/vN5z3bwe+F6s3yvMBhKBrF:TjwaewcPz3Me+33UF
Entropy 6.126094
Antivirus
Ahnlab Trojan/Win64.FakeCoinTrader
Avira TR/NukeSped.xmawj
BitDefender Trojan.GenericKD.34182499
Cyren W64/Trojan.ACZK-7741
ESET a variant of Win64/NukeSped.DE trojan
Emsisoft Trojan.GenericKD.34182499 (B)
Ikarus Trojan.Win64.Nukesped
K7 Trojan ( 00569b451 )
Lavasoft Trojan.GenericKD.34182499
NetGate Trojan.Win32.Malware
Symantec Trojan.Gen.MBT
TACHYON Trojan/W64.APosT.115712.B
VirusBlokAda Trojan.APosT
Zillya! Trojan.NukeSped.Win64.104
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2020-03-30 02:52:41-04:00
Import Hash 565005404f00b7def4499142ade5e3dd
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
7ad599057f9d62e659ad5265b6bf8c8e header 1024 2.724023
7b2cea9046657ec66f103b9b3f53453d .text 65536 6.457037
59a79bcabee5542c73040a87b4be2d4e .rdata 39936 5.085609
dbf3b39f579f6cafbdf3960f0a87f5f9 .data 2560 1.851526
a6f84d98a061c4cd7874a78606fff84f .pdata 4096 4.924567
9c5adf56a571e84dc0c7329a768be170 .gfids 512 1.326857
c7e574f00528a7e39d594132f836e2ca .reloc 2048 4.763069
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ 8.0 (DLL)
Relationships
21afaceee5... Contained_Within [Redacted]
Description

This file is a 64-bit Windows executable contained within the Windows MSI Installer "dorusio_win_v2.1.0.msi." When executed, "DorusioUpgrade.exe" first installs itself as a service, which will automatically start when any user logs on. The service is installed with a description of “Automatic Dorusio Upgrade."

After installing the service, "DorusioUpgrade.exe" has similar behavior to the upgrade components of Kupay Wallet (AppleJeus variant 4) and CoinGoTrade (AppleJeus variant 5). On startup, "DorusioUpgrade.exe" allocates memory in order to later write a file. After allocating the memory and storing the hardcoded string “Latest” in a variable, the program attempts to open a network connection. The connection is named “Dorusio Wallet 2.1.0 (Check Update Windows)”, likely to avoid suspicion from a user.

Similar to previous AppleJeus variants, "DorusioUpgrade.exe" collects some basic information from the system as well as a timestamp and places them in hard-coded format strings. Specifically, the timestamp is placed into a format string “ver=%d&timestamp=%lu” where ver is set as the 201000, possibly referring to the Dorusio Wallet version previously mentioned (Figure 5).

This basic information and hard-coded strings are sent via a POST to the command and control (C2) "dorusio.com/dorusio_update.php." If the POST is successful (i.e. returns an HTTP response status code of 200) but fails any of multiple different checks, "DorusioUpgrade.exe" will sleep for two minutes and then regenerate the timestamp and contact the C2 again.

After receiving the payload from the C2, the program writes the payload to memory and executes the payload.

The payload could not be downloaded as the C2 server dorusio.com/dorusio_update.php is no longer accessible. In addition, the sample was not identified in open source reporting for this sample.

Screenshots
Figure 6 - Screenshot of the format string and version.

Figure 6 - Screenshot of the format string and version.

[Redacted]

Tags

droppertrojan

Details
Name dorusio_osx_v2.1.0.dmg
Size [Redacted] bytes
Type zlib compressed data
MD5 [Redacted]
SHA1 [Redacted]
SHA256 [Redacted]
SHA512 [Redacted]
ssdeep [Redacted]
Entropy [Redacted]
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
[Redacted] Downloaded_By dorusio.com
Description

This OSX program from the Dorusio Wallet site is an Apple DMG installer. The OSX program does not has a digital signature and will warn the user of that before installation. As all previous versions of AppleJeus, the Dorusio Wallet installer appears to be legitimate, and installs both “Dorusio” (a0c461c94ba9f1573c7253666d218b3343d24bfa5d8ef270ee9bc74b7856e492) in the “/Applications/Dorusio.app/Contents/MacOS/” folder and a program named "dorusio_upgrade" (dcb232409c799f6ddfe4bc0566161c2d0b372db6095a0018e6059e34c2b79c61) also in the “/Applications/Dorusio.app/Contents/MacOS/” folder. The installer contains a postinstall script (Figure 7).

The postinstall script is identical in functionality to the postinstall scripts from previous AppleJeus variants and is identical to the CoinGoTrade (version 5) postinstall script. The postinstall script creates a “DorusioDaemon” folder in the OSX “/Library/Application Support” folder and moves "dorusio_upgrade" to it. The “Application Support” folder contains both system and third-party support files which are necessary for program operation. Typically, the subfolders have names matching those of the actual applications. At installation, Dorusio placed the plist file (com.dorusio.pkg.wallet.plist) in “/Library/LaunchDaemons/."

As the LaunchDaemon will not be run immediately after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script then launches the dorusio_upgrade program in the background.

Screenshots
Figure 7 - Screenshot of the postinstall script.

Figure 7 - Screenshot of the postinstall script.

Figure 8 - Screenshot of "com.dorusio.pkg.wallet.plist."

Figure 8 - Screenshot of "com.dorusio.pkg.wallet.plist."

a0c461c94ba9f1573c7253666d218b3343d24bfa5d8ef270ee9bc74b7856e492

Tags

trojan

Details
Name Dorusio
Size 186044 bytes
Type Mach-O 64-bit x86_64 executable, flags:<NOUNDEFS|DYLDLINK|TWOLEVEL|PIE>
MD5 4a43bafb4af0a038a7f430417bcc1b6e
SHA1 438243575764a5e856951126674f72f20b2a0d6f
SHA256 a0c461c94ba9f1573c7253666d218b3343d24bfa5d8ef270ee9bc74b7856e492
SHA512 51d37b27f390bc7f124f2cb8efb2b9c940d7a0c21b0912d06634f7f6af46a35e3221d25945bcad4b39748699ba8a33b17c350a480560e5c5cc09dffa84c54df0
ssdeep 3072:RiD/8kxClwjnLFycZ+xzknUapR+Nghc1VeY1HhNGKBqzoJGUNKFsJuMuixQdf:RiDUSyQnLFycZ+a8yhUVeY1LngzofKFF
Entropy 6.083001
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Description

This OSX sample was contained within Apple DMG installer "dorusio_osx_v2.1.0.dmg." Similar to the Windows version, "Dorusio" is likely a copy of Copay from BitPay and is almost identical to the AppleJeus variant 4 OSX "Kupay" program.

dcb232409c799f6ddfe4bc0566161c2d0b372db6095a0018e6059e34c2b79c61

Tags

trojan

Details
Name dorusio_upgrade
Size 33312 bytes
Type Mach-O 64-bit x86_64 executable, flags:<NOUNDEFS|DYLDLINK|TWOLEVEL|PIE>
MD5 d620c699a5b1828aca699b5aee77e5e6
SHA1 e769a810389f931b748bbe80742c427126c063a4
SHA256 dcb232409c799f6ddfe4bc0566161c2d0b372db6095a0018e6059e34c2b79c61
SHA512 7bd98454d2a3fdd9d541dd0547c1f6a690b02b24495ce58324dd6377730f85a22f217173e178253dd8def989106702e87f7fa57223dde011439ed90db148eb18
ssdeep 192:fHck6do21hhIymPTzTQxkqMd+K2uk7DLOJ4eL:fHcNqghDmPTzTE
Entropy 1.688205
Antivirus
ESET a variant of OSX/NukeSped.F trojan
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
dcb232409c... Connected_To dorusio.com
Description

This OSX sample was contained within Apple DMG installer "dorusio_osx_v2.1.0.dmg." The program "dorusio_upgrade" is similar to AppleJeus variant 4 OSX sample "kupay_upgrade" and AppleJeus variant 5 OSX sample "CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon."When executed, "dorusio_upgrade" immediately sleeps for five seconds then tests to see if the hard-coded value stored in “isReady” is a 0 or a 1. If it is a 0, the program sleeps again, and if it is a 1, the function “CheckUpdate” is called. This function contains most of the logic functionality of the malware. "CheckUpdate" sends a POST to the C2 hxxps[:]//dorusio.com/dorusio_update.php with a connection named “Dorusio Wallet 2.1.0 (Check Update Osx).

Just as the Kupay and CoinGoTrade malware, the timestamp is placed into a format string “ver=%d&timestamp=%ld” where ver is set as the 20100, possibly referring to the Dorusio Wallet version previously mentioned.

If the C2 server returns a file, it is decoded and written to /private/tmp/dorusio_update," with permissions by the command "chmod 700" (only the user can read, write, and execute). The stage2 (/private/tmp/dorusio_update) is then launched and the malware dorusio_upgrade returns to sleeping and checking in with the C2.

The payload could not be downloaded as the C2 server dorusio.com/dorusio_update.php is no longer accessible. In addition, the sample was not identified in open source reporting for this sample.

Screenshots
Figure 9 - Screenshot of the C2 loaded into the variable.

Figure 9 - Screenshot of the C2 loaded into the variable.

Relationship Summary

[Redacted] Downloaded_By dorusio.com
[Redacted] Contains 78b56a1385f2a92f3c9404f71731088646aac6c2c84cc19a449976272dab418f
[Redacted] Contains 21afaceee5fab15948a5a724222c948ad17cad181bf514a680267abcce186831
dorusio.com Connected_From dcb232409c799f6ddfe4bc0566161c2d0b372db6095a0018e6059e34c2b79c61
dorusio.com Downloaded [Redacted]
dorusio.com Downloaded [Redacted]
78b56a1385... Contained_Within [Redacted]
21afaceee5... Contained_Within [Redacted]
[Redacted] Downloaded_By dorusio.com
dcb232409c... Connected_To dorusio.com

Recommendations

CISA recommends that users and administrators consider using the following best practices to strengthen the security posture of their organization's systems. Any configuration changes should be reviewed by system owners and administrators prior to implementation to avoid unwanted impacts.

  • Maintain up-to-date antivirus signatures and engines.
  • Keep operating system patches up-to-date.
  • Disable File and Printer sharing services. If these services are required, use strong passwords or Active Directory authentication.
  • Restrict users' ability (permissions) to install and run unwanted software applications. Do not add users to the local administrators group unless required.
  • Enforce a strong password policy and implement regular password changes.
  • Exercise caution when opening e-mail attachments even if the attachment is expected and the sender appears to be known.
  • Enable a personal firewall on agency workstations, configured to deny unsolicited connection requests.
  • Disable unnecessary services on agency workstations and servers.
  • Scan for and remove suspicious e-mail attachments; ensure the scanned attachment is its "true file type" (i.e., the extension matches the file header).
  • Monitor users' web browsing habits; restrict access to sites with unfavorable content.
  • Exercise caution when using removable media (e.g., USB thumb drives, external drives, CDs, etc.).
  • Scan all software downloaded from the Internet prior to executing.
  • Maintain situational awareness of the latest threats and implement appropriate Access Control Lists (ACLs).

Additional information on malware incident prevention and handling can be found in National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Special Publication 800-83, "Guide to Malware Incident Prevention & Handling for Desktops and Laptops".

Contact Information

CISA continuously strives to improve its products and services. You can help by answering a very short series of questions about this product at the following URL: https://us-cert.cisa.gov/forms/feedback/

Document FAQ

What is a MIFR? A Malware Initial Findings Report (MIFR) is intended to provide organizations with malware analysis in a timely manner. In most instances this report will provide initial indicators for computer and network defense. To request additional analysis, please contact CISA and provide information regarding the level of desired analysis.

What is a MAR? A Malware Analysis Report (MAR) is intended to provide organizations with more detailed malware analysis acquired via manual reverse engineering. To request additional analysis, please contact CISA and provide information regarding the level of desired analysis.

Can I edit this document? This document is not to be edited in any way by recipients. All comments or questions related to this document should be directed to the CISA at 1-888-282-0870 or CISA Service Desk.

Can I submit malware to CISA? Malware samples can be submitted via three methods:

CISA encourages you to report any suspicious activity, including cybersecurity incidents, possible malicious code, software vulnerabilities, and phishing-related scams. Reporting forms can be found on CISA's homepage at www.cisa.gov.

Revisions

February 17, 2021: Initial Version

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