Malware Analysis Report (AR21-048E)

MAR-10322463-5.v1 - AppleJeus: CoinGoTrade

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Malware Analysis Report
10322463.r5.v1
2021-02-12

Notification

This report is provided "as is" for informational purposes only. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not provide any warranties of any kind regarding any information contained herein. The DHS does not endorse any commercial product or service referenced in this bulletin or otherwise.

This document is marked TLP:WHITE--Disclosure is not limited. Sources may use TLP:WHITE when information carries minimal or no foreseeable risk of misuse, in accordance with applicable rules and procedures for public release. Subject to standard copyright rules, TLP:WHITE information may be distributed without restriction. For more information on the Traffic Light Protocol (TLP), see http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp.

Summary

Description

This Malware Analysis Report (MAR) is the result of analytic efforts among the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and the Department of Treasury (Treasury) to highlight the cyber threat to cryptocurrency posed by North Korea, formally known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and provide mitigation recommendations. Working with U.S. government partners, FBI, CISA, and Treasury assess that Lazarus Group—which these agencies attribute to North Korean state-sponsored advanced persistent threat (APT) actors—is targeting individuals and companies, including cryptocurrency exchanges and financial service companies, through the dissemination of cryptocurrency trading applications that have been modified to include malware that facilitates theft of cryptocurrency.

This MAR highlights this cyber threat posed by North Korea and provides detailed indicators of compromise (IOCs) used by the North Korean government. The U.S. Government refers to malicious cyber activity by the North Korean government as HIDDEN COBRA. For more information on other versions of AppleJeus and recommended steps to mitigate this threat, see Joint Cybersecurity Advisory AA21-048A: AppleJeus: Analysis of North Korea's Cryptocurrency Malware at https://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/AA21-048A.

There have been multiple versions of AppleJeus malware discovered since its initial discovery in August 2018. In most versions, the malware appears to be from a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading company and website, whereby an unsuspecting individual downloads a third-party application from a website that appears legitimate.

The U.S. Government has identified AppleJeus malware version—CoinGoTrade—and associated IOCs used by the North Korean government in AppleJeus operations.

CoinGoTrade discovered in October 2020, is a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading software that is marketed and distributed by a company and website—CoinGoTrade and coingotrade[.]com, respectively—that appear legitimate. Some information has been redacted from this report to preserve victim anonymity.

For a downloadable copy of IOCs, see: MAR-10322463-5.v1.stix.

Submitted Files (7)

326d7836d580c08cf4b5e587434f6e5011ebf2284bbf3e7c083a8f41dac36ddd (CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon)

[Redacted] (CoinGoTrade.msi)

3e5442440aea07229a1bf6ca2fdf78c5e2e5eaac312a325ccb49d45da14f97f4 (CoinGoTrade.exe)

527792dfab79f026eaa6930d2109c93e816ed31826dba0338a9223db71aced18 (CoinGo_Trade)

572a124f5665be68eaa472590f3ba75bf34b0ea2942b5fcbfd3e74654202dd09 (CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe)

5e40d106977017b1ed235419b1e59ff090e1f43ac57da1bb5d80d66ae53b1df8 (prtspool)

[Redacted] (CoinGoTrade.dmg)

Domains (4)

airbseeker.com

coingotrade.com

globalkeystroke.com

woodmate.it

IPs (1)

23.152.0.101

Findings

[Redacted]

Tags

dropper

Details
Name CoinGoTrade.msi
Size [Redacted] bytes
Type Composite Document File V2 Document, Little Endian, Os: Windows, Version 10.0, MSI Installer, Security: 0, Code page: 1252, Number of Words: 2, Subject: CoinGoTrade, Author: CoinGoTrade, Name of Creating Application: Advanced Installer 14.5.2 build 83143, Template: ;1033, Comments: This installer database contains the logic and data required to install CoinGoTrade., Title: Installation Database, Keywords: Installer, MSI, Database, Number of Pages: 200
MD5 [Redacted]
SHA1 [Redacted]
SHA256 [Redacted]
SHA512 [Redacted]
ssdeep [Redacted]
Entropy [Redacted]
Antivirus
Avira TR/NukeSped.lyfhd
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
[Redacted] Downloaded_By coingotrade.com
[Redacted] Contains 3e5442440aea07229a1bf6ca2fdf78c5e2e5eaac312a325ccb49d45da14f97f4
[Redacted] Contains 572a124f5665be68eaa472590f3ba75bf34b0ea2942b5fcbfd3e74654202dd09
Description

This Windows program from the CoinGoTrade site is a Windows MSI Installer. The installer appears to be legitimate and will install "CoinGoTrade.exe" (3e5442440aea07229a1bf6ca2fdf78c5e2e5eaac312a325ccb49d45da14f97f4) in the “C:\Program Files (x86)\CoinGoTrade” folder. It will also install "CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe" (572a124f5665be68eaa472590f3ba75bf34b0ea2942b5fcbfd3e74654202dd09) in the “C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Roaming\CoinGoTradeSupport” folder. Immediately after installation, the installer launches "CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe." During installation, a "CoinGoTrade" folder containing the "CoinGoTrade.exe" application is added to the start menu.

Screenshots
Figure 1 - Screenshot of "CoinGoTrade" installation.

Figure 1 - Screenshot of "CoinGoTrade" installation.

coingotrade.com

URLs
  • coingotrade.com/update_coingotrade.php
  • hxxps[:]//coingotrade.com/download/[GUID]
Whois

Whois for coingotrade.com had the following information:
Registrar: NAMECHEAP INC
Creation Date: 2020-02-28
Registrar Registration Expiration Date: 2021-02-28

Relationships
coingotrade.com Downloaded [Redacted]
coingotrade.com Connected_From 572a124f5665be68eaa472590f3ba75bf34b0ea2942b5fcbfd3e74654202dd09
coingotrade.com Downloaded [Redacted]
Description

The domain "coingotrade.com" had a legitimately signed Sectigo Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate, which was “Domain Control Validated," similar to the domain certificates for previous AppleJeus variants. Investigation revealed the point of contact listed for verification was support[@]coingotrade.com. No other contact information was available as the administrative or technical contact for the coingotrade.com domain.

The domain is registered with NameCheap at the IP address 198.54.114.175 with ASN 22612.

Investigation revealed the IP address 198.54.114.175 was hosted at NameCheap, but no records were available at the time of writing.

Screenshots
Figure 2 -  Screenshot of the "CoinGoTrade" website.

Figure 2 - Screenshot of the "CoinGoTrade" website.

3e5442440aea07229a1bf6ca2fdf78c5e2e5eaac312a325ccb49d45da14f97f4

Tags

trojan

Details
Name CoinGoTrade.exe
Size 166912 bytes
Type PE32 executable (GUI) Intel 80386 Mono/.Net assembly, for MS Windows
MD5 88de31ad947927004ab56ab1e855fd64
SHA1 1d1f9f3ee8329c3f3033222a46c7a311f259a359
SHA256 3e5442440aea07229a1bf6ca2fdf78c5e2e5eaac312a325ccb49d45da14f97f4
SHA512 6e8391afc19ddfb841b79cc9b697fcd162d3a94a79976d3525476475d6fbe684ce9f2ba3a433cd725a51a71f6f74635a109914ff14252fac7e167a095ff1a890
ssdeep 3072:ssXh1ExFDi8z4C3Ssi5jCxe7IDYQFNY7BGMDK49eQ:sZRul5rLK4s
Entropy 4.402659
Antivirus
Ahnlab Trojan/Win32.FakeCoinTrader
BitDefender Gen:Variant.MSILHeracles.2293
ESET a variant of MSIL/Agent.TYJ trojan
Emsisoft Gen:Variant.MSILHeracles.2293 (B)
Lavasoft Gen:Variant.MSILHeracles.2293
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

PE Metadata
Compile Date 2020-03-17 04:55:13-04:00
Import Hash f34d5f2d4577ed6d9ceec516c1f5a744
File Description CryptoMex
Internal Name CoinGoTrade.exe
Legal Copyright Copyright © 2020
Original Filename CoinGoTrade.exe
Product Name CryptoMex
Product Version 1.0.0.0
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
ebb11bbea122a2fc761dff1d05defdb0 header 512 2.714333
b0d3ef9b5a227d092cf27c40c028d82d .text 40960 4.785436
35d28033f1f2359f265d8f406fc2c620 .rsrc 124928 4.154855
9d7ce3b9440143a341b9232fc0cb38ce .reloc 512 0.081539
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C# v7.0 / Basic .NET
Relationships
3e5442440a... Contained_Within [Redacted]
3e5442440a... Connected_To 23.152.0.101
Description

This file is a 32-bit Windows executable contained within the Windows MSI Installer "CoinGoTrade.msi." When executed, "CoinGoTrade.exe" loads a legitimate looking cryptocurrency wallet application with no signs of malicious activity. The strings for "CoinGoTrade.exe" contain the command and control (C2) "hxxp[:]//23.152.0.101:8080/ which was also identified in the MacOS CoinGo_Trade (527792dfab79f026eaa6930d2109c93e816ed31826dba0338a9223db71aced18) and the Kupay Wallet Stage 2 from AppleJeus version 4. In addition, a build path is present in the strings “U:\work\CryptoMex\teobot\teobot\obj\Release\CoinGoTrade.pdb" and the file properties description also states “CryptoMex." CryptoMex is likely an open source cryptocurrency application which was copied in order to create this application.

Screenshots
Figure 3 - Screenshot of "CryptoMex" listed in CoinGoTrade.exe" properties.

Figure 3 - Screenshot of "CryptoMex" listed in CoinGoTrade.exe" properties.

23.152.0.101

Tags

command-and-control

Ports
  • 8080 TCP
Whois

Queried whois.arin.net with "n 23.152.0.101"...

NetRange:     23.152.0.0 - 23.152.0.255
CIDR:         23.152.0.0/24
NetName:        CROWNCLOUD-V6V4
NetHandle:     NET-23-152-0-0-1
Parent:         NET23 (NET-23-0-0-0-0)
NetType:        Direct Allocation
OriginAS:     AS8100
Organization: Crowncloud US LLC (CUL-34)
RegDate:        2015-11-23
Updated:        2015-11-23
Comment:        IPs in this block are statically assigned, please report any abuse to admin@crowncloud.us
Ref:            https://rdap.arin.net/registry/ip/23.152.0.0


OrgName:        Crowncloud US LLC
OrgId:         CUL-34
Address:        530 W 6th St
Address:        C/O Cid 4573 Quadranet Inc. Ste 901
City:         Los Angeles
StateProv:     CA
PostalCode:     90014-1207
Country:        US
RegDate:        2014-07-25
Updated:        2017-10-10
Ref:            https://rdap.arin.net/registry/entity/CUL-34


OrgTechHandle: CROWN9-ARIN
OrgTechName: Crowncloud Support
OrgTechPhone: +1-940-867-4072
OrgTechEmail: admin@crowncloud.us
OrgTechRef:    https://rdap.arin.net/registry/entity/CROWN9-ARIN

OrgAbuseHandle: CROWN9-ARIN
OrgAbuseName: Crowncloud Support
OrgAbusePhone: +1-940-867-4072
OrgAbuseEmail: admin@crowncloud.us
OrgAbuseRef:    https://rdap.arin.net/registry/entity/CROWN9-ARIN

Relationships
23.152.0.101 Connected_From 3e5442440aea07229a1bf6ca2fdf78c5e2e5eaac312a325ccb49d45da14f97f4
23.152.0.101 Connected_From 527792dfab79f026eaa6930d2109c93e816ed31826dba0338a9223db71aced18
Description

This IP address is the C2 for "CoinGoTrade.exe" and "CoinGo_Trade."

572a124f5665be68eaa472590f3ba75bf34b0ea2942b5fcbfd3e74654202dd09

Tags

trojan

Details
Name CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe
Size 115712 bytes
Type PE32+ executable (GUI) x86-64, for MS Windows
MD5 149a696472d4a189f5896336ab16cc34
SHA1 decb43141699e43a1d27dc2db063e0020f9f33aa
SHA256 572a124f5665be68eaa472590f3ba75bf34b0ea2942b5fcbfd3e74654202dd09
SHA512 32081f04a1b4a9540aad81a2a20c00c81ade40624dd446babebeb7230bb84025ba59516fab1388aad3fbf6842811ef2d8d6f0978950442c320edcd2bd8380847
ssdeep 3072:FHAqeXaeHx9pdpqw6IQIsMF6s3yv7pHOBo:FWXaeHxrvB6X9M33
Entropy 6.128250
Antivirus
Ahnlab Trojan/Win64.FakeCoinTrader
Avira TR/NukeSped.ooibk
ESET a variant of Win64/NukeSped.CR trojan
Ikarus Trojan.Win64.Nukesped
K7 Trojan ( 00567f291 )
Symantec Trojan.Gen.2
TACHYON Trojan/W64.APosT.115712
Zillya! Trojan.APosT.Win32.1433
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches
94 fc1aafd2ed190fa523e60c3d22b6f7ca049d97fc41c9a2fe987576d6b5e81d6d
PE Metadata
Compile Date 2020-03-17 21:02:52-04:00
Import Hash 565005404f00b7def4499142ade5e3dd
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
d959d6ecb853f993046f81f109f7a5a9 header 1024 2.714314
e350351a05606da16418a7f01436cd7d .text 65536 6.455927
5889779ac56e5fa9aa8123921d9ba943 .rdata 39936 5.084443
dbf3b39f579f6cafbdf3960f0a87f5f9 .data 2560 1.851526
9b5c53415d33ef775d744a48f71fcd18 .pdata 4096 4.957426
90e2eb1b90616d039eca5e2627ea1134 .gfids 512 1.320519
3f1861d2a0b1dc2d1329c9d2b3353924 .reloc 2048 4.762609
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ 8.0 (DLL)
Relationships
572a124f56... Contained_Within [Redacted]
572a124f56... Connected_To coingotrade.com
Description

This file is a 32-bit Windows executable contained within the Windows MSI Installer "CoinGoTrade.msi." When executed, CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe will installs itself as a service, which will automatically start when any user logs on. The service is installed with the description of “Automatic CoinGoTrade Upgrade."

After installing the service, "CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe" has similar behavior to the updater component for AppleJeus version 4 "Kupay Wallet." On startup "CoinGoUpdate.exe" allocates memory to write a file. After allocating the memory and storing the hard-coded string “Latest” in a variable, the program attempts to open a network connection. The connection is named "CoinGoTrade 1.0 (Check Update Windows)," which is likely to avoid suspicion from a user.

Similarly, to previous AppleJeus variants, "CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe" collects some basic information from the system as well as a timestamp, and places the collected information in hard-coded format strings. Specifically, the timestamp is placed into a format string “ver=%d&timestamp=%lu” where "ver" is set as the 1000, possibly referring to the CoinGoTrade version previously mentioned. This basic information and hard-coded strings are sent via a POST to the C2 "coingotrade.com/update_coingotrade.php." If the POST is successful (i.e. returns an HTTP response status code of 200) but fails any of multiple different checks, "CoinGoTradeUpdate.exe" will sleep for two minutes and then regenerate the timestamp and contact the C2 again.

After receiving the payload from the C2, the program writes the payload to memory and executes the payload.

The payload for the Windows malware could not be downloaded, as the C2 server "coingotrade.com/coingotrade_update.php" was no longer accessible. In addition, the sample was not identified in open source reporting for this sample. The Windows payload is likely similar in functionality to "prtspool" (5e40d106977017b1ed235419b1e59ff090e1f43ac57da1bb5d80d66ae53b1df8) the OSX stage 2 sample.

Screenshots
Figure 4 - Screenshot of the format string and version.

Figure 4 - Screenshot of the format string and version.

[Redacted]

Tags

droppertrojan

Details
Name CoinGoTrade.dmg
Size [Redacted] bytes
Type zlib compressed data
MD5 [Redacted]
SHA1 [Redacted]
SHA256 [Redacted]
SHA512 [Redacted]
ssdeep [Redacted]
Entropy [Redacted]
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
[Redacted] Downloaded_By coingotrade.com
[Redacted] Contains 527792dfab79f026eaa6930d2109c93e816ed31826dba0338a9223db71aced18
[Redacted] Contains 326d7836d580c08cf4b5e587434f6e5011ebf2284bbf3e7c083a8f41dac36ddd
Description

This OSX program from the CoinGoTrade site is an Apple DMG installer. The installer was hosted at hxxps[:]//coingotrade.com/[GUID]. The [GUID] is a unique file that is crafted for a specific victim and is being withheld to preserve the identity of the intended recipient. The OSX program is an Apple DMG installer with the file name CoinGoTrade.dmg.

The OSX program does not have a digital signature and will warn the user of that before installation. As all previous versions of AppleJeus, the CoinGoTrade installer appears to be legitimate and installs both “CoinGo_Trade” (527792dfab79f026eaa6930d2109c93e816ed31826dba0338a9223db71aced18) in the “/Applications/CoinGoTrade.app/Contents/MacOS/” folder and a program named "CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon" (326d7836d580c08cf4b5e587434f6e5011ebf2284bbf3e7c083a8f41dac36ddd) also in the “/Applications/CoinGoTrade.app/Contents/MacOS/” folder. The installer contains a postinstall script (Figure 5).

The postinstall script is identical in functionality to the postinstall scripts from previous AppleJeus variants and is identical to the AppleJeus variant 4 "Kupay" postinstall script without the "launchctl" command. The postinstall script creates a “CoinGoTradeService” folder in the OSX “/Library/Application Support” folder and moves "CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon" to it. The “Application Support” folder contains both system and third-party support files which are necessary for program operation. Typically, the subfolders have names matching those of the actual applications. At installation, CoinGoTrade placed the plist file (com.coingotrade.pkg.product.plist) in “/Library/LaunchDaemons/."

As the LaunchDaemon will not be run immediately after the plist file is moved, the postinstall script then launches the "CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon" program in the background.

Screenshots
Figure 5 - Screenshot of the postinstall script.

Figure 5 - Screenshot of the postinstall script.

Figure 6 - Screenshot of "com.coingotrade.pkg.product.plist."

Figure 6 - Screenshot of "com.coingotrade.pkg.product.plist."

527792dfab79f026eaa6930d2109c93e816ed31826dba0338a9223db71aced18

Tags

trojan

Details
Name CoinGo_Trade
Size 49536 bytes
Type Mach-O 64-bit x86_64 executable, flags:<NOUNDEFS|DYLDLINK|TWOLEVEL|PIE>
MD5 7a73178c682d1a61b2f1c61ae558b608
SHA1 358f4c8575c82f45340886f282d41ca0560cfa6e
SHA256 527792dfab79f026eaa6930d2109c93e816ed31826dba0338a9223db71aced18
SHA512 bb044103c9d2abd04b06a7bae31215302e8310ef5e815ee15025b430b9ea230c7246c96769b2f03a614e1d196ab9bbdf9d3b49980d1b282f58d3823b510ce990
ssdeep 384:O6XCYcjaTtLXN8KzIBAsyDfpBkSp6nHYYAZvamQ5nT:O6XZnRNnzICsyuHYrBxgn
Entropy 3.472034
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
527792dfab... Contained_Within [Redacted]
527792dfab... Connected_To 23.152.0.101
Description

This OSX sample was contained within Apple DMG installer "CoinGoTrade.dmg." "CoinGo _Trade" is likely a copy of an open source cryptocurrency application. The strings for "CoinGo_Trade" contain the C2 hxxp[:]//23.152.0.101:8080, which is also found in the Windows CoinGoTrade.exe (3e5442440aea07229a1bf6ca2fdf78c5e2e5eaac312a325ccb49d45da14f97f4) and the Kupay Wallet Stage 2 from AppleJeus version 4.

326d7836d580c08cf4b5e587434f6e5011ebf2284bbf3e7c083a8f41dac36ddd

Tags

backdoortrojan

Details
Name CoinGoTradeUpgradeDaemon
Size 33312 bytes
Type Mach-O 64-bit x86_64 executable, flags:<NOUNDEFS|DYLDLINK|TWOLEVEL|PIE>
MD5 0d195513534855e613bd7a29243565ab
SHA1 80923c208c2c821ed99e1ed8f50bd549598a210c
SHA256 326d7836d580c08cf4b5e587434f6e5011ebf2284bbf3e7c083a8f41dac36ddd
SHA512 d4c822252c03523a3e37edf314caa5142be230e2c34e3f5b648a944b88632e6e74af41bc9c8661c608fdff19822c590f6f98d41dc524385be3092af42936f30f
ssdeep 192:fWkPKt21UIIymPTTDO/kqMd+K2uk6aLc4eL:fWIogUKmPTT8
Entropy 1.690330
Antivirus
Ahnlab Trojan/OSX64.FakeCoinTrader.33313
Antiy Trojan/Mac.NukeSped
Avira OSX/NukeSped.ifaaj
BitDefender Gen:Variant.Trojan.MAC.Lazarus.4
ClamAV Osx.Malware.Agent-8010705-0
ESET a variant of OSX/NukeSped.F trojan
Emsisoft Gen:Variant.Trojan.MAC.Lazarus.4 (B)
Ikarus Trojan.OSX.Nukesped
Lavasoft Gen:Variant.Trojan.MAC.Lazarus.4
McAfee OSX/Lazarus.c
Microsoft Security Essentials Trojan:MacOS/NukeSped.D!MTB
Quick Heal Mac.Backdoor.38173.GC
Sophos OSX/NukeSped-AG
Symantec