Malware Analysis Report (AR21-048D)

MAR-10322463-4.v1 - AppleJeus: Kupay Wallet

Click to Tweet.
Click to send to Facebook.
Click to Share.
 
Malware Analysis Report
10322463.r4.v1
2021-04-08

Notification

This report is provided "as is" for informational purposes only. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not provide any warranties of any kind regarding any information contained herein. The DHS does not endorse any commercial product or service referenced in this bulletin or otherwise.

This document is marked TLP:WHITE--Disclosure is not limited. Sources may use TLP:WHITE when information carries minimal or no foreseeable risk of misuse, in accordance with applicable rules and procedures for public release. Subject to standard copyright rules, TLP:WHITE information may be distributed without restriction. For more information on the Traffic Light Protocol (TLP), see http://www.us-cert.gov/tlp.

Summary

Description

This Malware Analysis Report (MAR) is the result of analytic efforts among the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), the Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA), and the Department of Treasury (Treasury) to highlight the cyber threat to cryptocurrency posed by North Korea, formally known as the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK), and provide mitigation recommendations. Working with U.S. government partners, FBI, CISA, and Treasury assess that Lazarus Group—which these agencies attribute to North Korean state-sponsored advanced persistent threat (APT) actors—is targeting individuals and companies, including cryptocurrency exchanges and financial service companies, through the dissemination of cryptocurrency trading applications that have been modified to include malware that facilitates theft of cryptocurrency.

This MAR highlights this cyber threat posed by North Korea and provides detailed indicators of compromise (IOCs) used by the North Korean government. The U.S. Government refers to malicious cyber activity by the North Korean government as HIDDEN COBRA. For more information on other versions of AppleJeus and recommended steps to mitigate this threat, see Joint Cybersecurity Advisory AA21-048A: AppleJeus: Analysis of Lazarus Group Cryptocurrency Malware at https://www.us-cert.cisa.gov/ncas/alerts/AA21-048A.

There have been multiple versions of AppleJeus malware discovered since its initial discovery in August 2018. In most versions, the malware appears to be from a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading company and website, whereby an unsuspecting individual downloads a third-party application from a website that appears legitimate.

The U.S. Government has identified AppleJeus malware version—Kupay Wallet—and associated IOCs used by the North Korean government in AppleJeus operations.

Kupay Wallet, discovered in March 2020, is a legitimate-looking cryptocurrency trading software that is marketed and distributed by a company and website—Kupay Service and kupaywallet[.]com, respectively—that appear legitimate. Some information has been redacted from this report to preserve victim anonymity.

For a downloadable copy of IOCs, see: MAR-10322463-4.v1.stix.

Submitted Files (7)

0bc7517aa2f0c1820ced399bfd66b993f10ad77e8d72727b0f3dc1ca35cad7ba (kupay_upgrade)

1b60a6d35c872102f535ae6a3d7669fb7d55c43dc7e73354423fdcca01a955d6 (Kupay.exe)

55eacc25e9eaba5d3f04b6cbcac2e16879b83d967596d645e5ec4b8f42656ef9 (Kupay.dmg)

6b945159b4c816ec5e212ba125eb01938234205d8d3e57fca46de7c064c628f8 (Kupay.msi)

91eaf215be336eae983d069de16630cc3580e222c427f785e0da312d0692d0fd (kupayupdate_stage2)

a0c461c94ba9f1573c7253666d218b3343d24bfa5d8ef270ee9bc74b7856e492 (kupay)

fc1aafd2ed190fa523e60c3d22b6f7ca049d97fc41c9a2fe987576d6b5e81d6d (KupayUpgrade.exe)

Domains (2)

kupaywallet.com

levelframeblog.com

Findings

6b945159b4c816ec5e212ba125eb01938234205d8d3e57fca46de7c064c628f8

Tags

dropper

Details
Name Kupay.msi
Size 143568384 bytes
Type Composite Document File V2 Document, Little Endian, Os: Windows, Version 10.0, MSI Installer, Last Printed: Fri Dec 11 11:47:44 2009, Create Time/Date: Fri Dec 11 11:47:44 2009, Last Saved Time/Date: Fri Dec 11 11:47:44 2009, Security: 0, Code page: 1252, Revision Number: {9DCFF3DB-C353-460A-B325-AF38D7F3E338}, Number of Words: 2, Subject: Kupay, Author: Kupay Service, Name of Creating Application: Advanced Installer 14.5.2 build 83143, Template: ;1033, Comments: This installer database contains the logic and data required to install Kupay., Title: Installation Database, Keywords: Installer, MSI, Database, Number of Pages: 200
MD5 afdf3dd62dafd401be4bbeca65b42635
SHA1 8b45d12ed8c058ea0ce3122da9a82b9fb045d6a3
SHA256 6b945159b4c816ec5e212ba125eb01938234205d8d3e57fca46de7c064c628f8
SHA512 bdc7a8904ad154046ade472442810c0007e5494665b429d847eef74b05567422600dd543bd8ae632128cd8def853926f2a86eab0e7d91a1d4451489ea2262b55
ssdeep 3145728:M8yVXZLQX6rw3cJRGmMEuwRNiPTdy68L04oIRHndNQGOx:9yVXZfrw3CGtw3iPTdytmIRHdlw
Entropy 7.997013
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches

No matches found.

Relationships
6b945159b4... Contains 1b60a6d35c872102f535ae6a3d7669fb7d55c43dc7e73354423fdcca01a955d6
6b945159b4... Contains fc1aafd2ed190fa523e60c3d22b6f7ca049d97fc41c9a2fe987576d6b5e81d6d
6b945159b4... Downloaded_By kupaywallet.com
Description

This Windows program from the Kupay Service site is a Windows MSI Installer with the file name Kupay[GUID].msi. The installer was hosted at hxxps[:]kupaywallet.com/product/[GUID]. The [GUID] is a unique file that is crated for a specific victim and is being withheld to preserve the identity of the intended recipient.

The installer looks legitimate and will install the "Kupay.exe" (1b60a6d35c872102f535ae6a3d7669fb7d55c43dc7e73354423fdcca01a955d6) file in the “C:\Program Files (x86)\Kupay” folder. It also installs "KupayUpgrade.exe" (fc1aafd2ed190fa523e60c3d22b6f7ca049d97fc41c9a2fe987576d6b5e81d6d) in the “C:\Users\<username>\AppData\Roaming\KupaySupport” folder. Immediately after installation, the installer launches the "KupayUpgrade.exe" binary.

Screenshots
Figure 1 - Screenshot of "Kupay.msi" installation.

Figure 1 - Screenshot of "Kupay.msi" installation.

kupaywallet.com

Tags

command-and-control

URLs
  • kupaywallet.com/kupay_update.php
  • kupaywallet.com/product/
Whois

Whois for kupaywallet.com had the following information:
Registrar: NAMECHEAP INC
Creation Date: 2020-02-21
Registrar Registration Expiration Date: 2021-02-21

Relationships
kupaywallet.com Downloaded 6b945159b4c816ec5e212ba125eb01938234205d8d3e57fca46de7c064c628f8
kupaywallet.com Downloaded 55eacc25e9eaba5d3f04b6cbcac2e16879b83d967596d645e5ec4b8f42656ef9
kupaywallet.com Connected_From 0bc7517aa2f0c1820ced399bfd66b993f10ad77e8d72727b0f3dc1ca35cad7ba
Description

The domain kupaywallet.com had a legitimately signed Sectigo Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificate, which was “Domain Control Validated” just as all previous AppleJeus domain certificates. Investigation revealed the point of contact listed for verification was admin[@]kupaywallet.com. No other contact information was available as the administrative or technical contact for the kupaywallet.com domain.

The domain is registered with NameCheap at the IP address 104.200.67.96 with ASN 8100.

In addition to the site kupaywallet.com, a Twitter account @kupayservice is associated with the company. This account tweets out general cryptocurrency articles and information and replies to various related tweets. The first tweet was on May 23, 2019, while the last was on July 11, 2019. Twitter lists the joined date for @kupayservice to be October 2018.

Screenshots
Figure 2 - Screenshot of KupayService Twitter account.

Figure 2 - Screenshot of KupayService Twitter account.

1b60a6d35c872102f535ae6a3d7669fb7d55c43dc7e73354423fdcca01a955d6

Tags

trojan

Details
Name Kupay.exe
Size 97686016 bytes
Type PE32+ executable (GUI) x86-64, for MS Windows
MD5 668d696582f9c00029e2e8253470e9db
SHA1 e83ebe43da7bbfb9c95d34163383d1b3926e663f
SHA256 1b60a6d35c872102f535ae6a3d7669fb7d55c43dc7e73354423fdcca01a955d6
SHA512 0b370636ea2b7211d691a3bfcfc9017cb12df6874becb9b6334ca735bc325f59c50e99fc3b57c8db2d265e0c631651c7280109ffdbb3b48b7d3709d908228de6
ssdeep 1572864:MdJvugr82jf19dUM/1T8+1VJRukUhkmG:Mdhg6Pm
Entropy 6.674838
Antivirus

No matches found.

YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches
97 78b56a1385f2a92f3c9404f71731088646aac6c2c84cc19a449976272dab418f
PE Metadata
Compile Date 2019-12-16 00:00:00-05:00
Import Hash bb1d46df79ee2045d0bc2529cf6c7458
Company Name BitPay
File Description Kupay
Internal Name Kupay
Legal Copyright Copyright © 2020 BitPay
Product Name Kupay
Product Version 9.1.0.0
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
32b731864b0ff3d1c427c97d582e7897 header 1024 2.990247
36430f041d87935dcb34adde2e7d625d .text 78234112 6.471421
ee7e02e8e2958ff79f25c8fd8b7d33e5 .rdata 15596032 6.376243
65c59271f5c2bab26a7d0838e9f04bcf .data 262144 3.484705
00406f1d9355757d80cbf48242fdf344 .pdata 2768896 6.805097
6a6a225bfe091e65d3f82654179fbc50 .00cfg 512 0.195869
786f587a97128c401be15c90fe059b72 .rodata 6144 4.219562
9efa43af7b1faae15ffbd428d0485819 .tls 512 0.136464
60d3ea61d541c9be2e845d2787fb9574 CPADinfo 512 0.122276
bf619eac0cdf3f68d496ea9344137e8b prot 512 0.000000
85237257867935c227d2f2f39316b12a .rsrc 106496 4.912524
fb3216031225fdb1902888e247009d0c .reloc 709120 5.476445
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ 8.0 (DLL)
Relationships
1b60a6d35c... Contained_Within 6b945159b4c816ec5e212ba125eb01938234205d8d3e57fca46de7c064c628f8
Description

This file is a 64-bit Windows executable contained within the Windows MSI Installer "Kupay.msi." When executed, "Kupay.exe" loads a legitimate looking cryptocurrency wallet application with no signs of malicious activity. This application appears to be a modification of the open source cryptocurrency wallet Copay, which is distributed by Atlanta based company BitPay. According to their website bitpay.com, “BitPay builds powerful, enterprise-grade tools for crypto acceptance and spending."

In addition to application appearance being similar, a DNS request for "bitpay.com" is always sent out immediately after a DNS request for "kupaywallet.com" and the company listed in the version information for Kupay is Bitpay.

Lastly, the GitHub “Commit Hash” listed in the Dorusio application “638b2b1” is to a branch of Copay found at hxxps[:]//github.com/flean/copay-1 (Figure 5).

Screenshots
Figure 3 - Screenshot of the Kupay Wallet application.

Figure 3 - Screenshot of the Kupay Wallet application.

Figure 4 - Screenshot of the Bitpay site displaying the application.

Figure 4 - Screenshot of the Bitpay site displaying the application.

Figure 5 - Copay GitHub branch matching Dorusio.

Figure 5 - Copay GitHub branch matching Dorusio.

fc1aafd2ed190fa523e60c3d22b6f7ca049d97fc41c9a2fe987576d6b5e81d6d

Tags

trojan

Details
Name KupayUpgrade.exe
Size 115712 bytes
Type PE32+ executable (GUI) x86-64, for MS Windows
MD5 60c2efdafbffc5bd6709c8e461f7b77d
SHA1 dbddccba18422eea5d7bb1bdfe66ceee90446a45
SHA256 fc1aafd2ed190fa523e60c3d22b6f7ca049d97fc41c9a2fe987576d6b5e81d6d
SHA512 5543d4e5872ef5b0f12ba180425d2ab94131c03f4fec7195f3a74d051d5a867ad580ea794a1af6c6bd16e4bc27337cc138fe71aab9600792bfd5da1a1d262162
ssdeep 3072:oHAqeXaeHx9pdpqw6IQIsMF6s3yvPxdOBU:kWXaeHxrvB6X9M33
Entropy 6.128091
Antivirus
Ahnlab Trojan/Win64.FakeCoinTrader
ESET a variant of Win64/NukeSped.DE trojan
K7 Trojan ( 00569b451 )
Zillya! Trojan.Generic.Win32.1058845
YARA Rules

No matches found.

ssdeep Matches
94 572a124f5665be68eaa472590f3ba75bf34b0ea2942b5fcbfd3e74654202dd09
PE Metadata
Compile Date 2020-02-25 03:46:13-05:00
Import Hash 565005404f00b7def4499142ade5e3dd
PE Sections
MD5 Name Raw Size Entropy
695567cdbccfbe54b19634abe3bb1e5b header 1024 2.723717
e35b1061d665602ed7e1c2d9de87f059 .text 65536 6.456115
1578510ae509e46d8f3201edb3349d54 .rdata 39936 5.084900
dbf3b39f579f6cafbdf3960f0a87f5f9 .data 2560 1.851526
cb3735cf6fde4690ee7a6cd2026eb4de .pdata 4096 4.957030
90e2eb1b90616d039eca5e2627ea1134 .gfids 512 1.320519
3f1861d2a0b1dc2d1329c9d2b3353924 .reloc 2048 4.762609
Packers/Compilers/Cryptors
Microsoft Visual C++ 8.0 (DLL)
Relationships
fc1aafd2ed... Contained_Within 6b945159b4c816ec5e212ba125eb01938234205d8d3e57fca46de7c064c628f8
Description

This file is a 64-bit Windows executable contained within the Windows MSI Installer "Kupay.msi." When executed, "KupayUpgrade.exe" first installs itself as a service, which will automatically start when any user logs on. The service is installed with a description stating “Automatic Kupay Upgrade."

On startup, "KupayUpgrade.exe" allocates memory in order to later write a file. After allocating the memory and storing the hard-coded string “Latest” in a variable, the program attempts to open a network connection. The connection is named “Kupay Wallet 9.0.1 (Check Update Windows)”, likely to avoid suspicion from a user.

Similarly to previous AppleJeus variants, "KupayUpgrade.exe "collects some basic information from the system as well as a timestamp, and places them in hard coded format strings. Specifically, the timestamp is placed into a format string “ver=%d&timestamp=%lu” where ver is set as the 90001, possibly referring to the Kupay Wallet version previously mentioned (Figure 7).

This basic information and hard-coded strings are sent via a POST to the C2 kupaywallet.com/kupay_update.php. If the POST is successful (i.e. returns an HTTP response status code of 200) but fails any of multiple different checks, "KupayUpgrade.exe" will sleep for two minutes and then regenerate the timestamp and contact the C2 again.

After receiving the payload from the C2, the program writes the payload to memory and executes the payload.

The payload for the Windows malware could not be downloaded, as the C2 server "kupaywallet.com/kupay_update.php" was no longer accessible. In addition, the sample was not identified in open source reporting for this sample.

Screenshots