ICS Medical Advisory (ICSMA-20-170-04)

Baxter Sigma Spectrum Infusion Pumps (Update A)

Legal Notice

All information products included in https://us-cert.gov/ics are provided "as is" for informational purposes only. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not provide any warranties of any kind regarding any information contained within. DHS does not endorse any commercial product or service, referenced in this product or otherwise. Further dissemination of this product is governed by the Traffic Light Protocol (TLP) marking in the header. For more information about TLP, see https://www.us-cert.gov/tlp/.


 

1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  • CVSS v3 8.6
  • ATTENTION: Exploitable remotely/low skill level to exploit
  • Vendor: Baxter 
  • Equipment: Sigma Spectrum Infusion Pumps 
  • Vulnerabilities: Use of Hard-coded Password, Cleartext Transmission of Sensitive Data, Incorrect Permission Assignment for Critical Resource, Operation on a Resource After Expiration or Release

2. UPDATE INFORMATION

This updated advisory is a follow-up to the original advisory titled ICSA-20-170-04 Sigma Spectrum Infusion Pumps that was published June 18, 2020, on the ICS webpage on us-cert.gov.

3. RISK EVALUATION

Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could result in access to sensitive data, alteration of system configuration, and impact to system availability.

4. TECHNICAL DETAILS

4.1 AFFECTED PRODUCTS

The following versions of Sigma Spectrum Infusion systems, are affected:

  • Sigma Spectrum v6.x model 35700BAX
  • Baxter Spectrum v8.x model 35700BAX2
  • Sigma Spectrum v6.x with Wireless Battery Modules v9, v11, v13, v14, v15, v16, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24
  • Baxter Spectrum v8.x with Wireless Battery Modules v17, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24
  • Baxter Spectrum Wireless Battery Modules v17, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24
  • Baxter Spectrum LVP v8.x with Wireless Battery Modules v17, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24

4.2 VULNERABILITY OVERVIEW

4.2.1    USE OF HARD-CODED PASSWORD CWE-259

Sigma Spectrum Infusion System Version(s) 6.x (model 35700BAX) and Baxter Spectrum Infusion System Version(s) 8.x (model 35700BAX2) contain hard-coded passwords which, when physically entered on the keypad, provide access to biomedical menus that include device settings, view of calibration values, and network configuration of the Sigma Spectrum Wireless Battery Module (WBM) if installed.

CVE-2020-12039 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 4.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:P/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:L/A:L).

4.2.2    CLEARTEXT TRANSMISSION OF SENSITIVE DATA CWE-319

Sigma Spectrum Infusion System Version(s) 6.x (model 35700BAX) and Baxter Spectrum Infusion System Version(s) 8.x (model 35700BAX2) at the application layer uses an unauthenticated clear-text communication channel to send and receive system status and operational data. This could allow an attacker that has circumvented network security measures to view sensitive non-private data or to perform a man-in-the-middle attack.

CVE-2020-12040 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 7.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:L/A:L).

4.2.3    USE OF HARD-CODED PASSWORD CWE-259

The Baxter Spectrum WBM (v17, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24) when used in conjunction with a Baxter Spectrum v8.x (model 35700BAX2), operates a Telnet service on Port 1023 with hard-coded credentials.  

CVE-2020-12045 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 8.6 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:L/A:H).

4.2.4    INCORRECT PERMISSION ASSIGNMENT FOR CRITICAL RESOURCE CWE-732

The Baxter Spectrum WBM (v17, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24) telnet Command-Line Interface, grants access to sensitive data stored on the WBM that permits temporary configuration changes to network settings of the WBM, and allows the WBM to be rebooted. Temporary configuration changes to network settings are removed upon reboot.  

CVE-2020-12041 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 8.6 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:L/A:H).

4.2.5    USE OF HARD-CODED PASSWORD CWE-259

The Baxter Spectrum WBM (v17, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24), when used with a Baxter Spectrum v8.x (model 35700BAX2) in a factory-default wireless configuration enables an FTP service with hard-coded credentials.

CVE-2020-12047 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 7.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:L/A:L).

4.2.6    OPERATION ON A RESOURCE AFTER EXPIRATION OR RELEASE CWE-672

The Baxter Spectrum WBM (v17, v20D29, v20D30, v20D31, and v22D24) when configured for wireless networking the FTP service operating on the WBM remains operational until the WBM is rebooted.

CVE-2020-12043 has been assigned to this vulnerability. A CVSS v3 base score of 7.3 has been calculated; the CVSS vector string is (AV:N/AC:L/PR:N/UI:N/S:U/C:L/I:L/A:L).

4.3 BACKGROUND

  • CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECTORS: Healthcare and Public Health
  • COUNTRIES/AREAS DEPLOYED: United States 
  • COMPANY HEADQUARTERS LOCATION: United States 

4.4 RESEARCHER

Baxter Healthcare has reported these vulnerabilities to CISA.

5. MITIGATIONS

Baxter recommends ensuring appropriate physical controls within user environments to protect against unauthorized access to devices. 

Baxter recommends isolating the Spectrum Infusion Systems to its own network VLAN to segregate the system from other hospital systems, and reduce the probability that a threat actor could execute an adjacent attack such as a MiTM attack against the system to observe clear-text communications.

Baxter recommends using appropriate wireless network security protocols (WPA2, EAP-TLS, etc.) to provide authentication/encryption of wireless data sent to/from the Spectrum Infusion System. 

Users should ensure the WBM is rebooted after configuration for their network(s) by removing the WBM from the rear of the Spectrum device for 10-15 seconds, and then re-attaching the WBM. 

Users should always monitor for and/or block unexpected traffic, such as FTP, at network boundaries into the Spectrum-specific VLAN.

As a last resort, users may disable wireless operation of the pump. The Spectrum Infusion System was designed to operate without network access. This action would impact an organization’s ability to rapidly deploy drug library (formulary) updates to their pumps.

--------- Begin Update A Part 1 of 1 ---------

For additional information please see the Baxter Product Security Bulletin.

--------- End Update A Part 1 of 1 ---------

CISA recommends users take defensive measures to minimize the risk of exploitation of these vulnerabilities. Specifically, users should:

  • Monitor and log all network traffic attempting to reach the affected products, to include Port 20/FTP, Port 21/FTP, and Port 23/TELNET.
  • Isolate the affected products from the Internet and all untrusted systems.
  • Follow good network hygiene to include appropriate network segmentation, utilizing DMZs and properly configured firewalls.

CISA reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.

CISA also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS webpage on us-cert.gov. Several recommended practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies.

Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available on the ICS webpage on us-cert.gov in the Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B--Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies.

Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to CISA for tracking and correlation against other incidents.

No known public exploits specifically target these vulnerabilities.


Contact Information

For any questions related to this report, please contact the CISA at:

Email: CISAservicedesk@cisa.dhs.gov
Toll Free: 1-888-282-0870

For industrial control systems cybersecurity information:  https://www.us-cert.gov/ics 
or incident reporting:  https://www.us-cert.gov/report

CISA continuously strives to improve its products and services. You can help by choosing one of the links below to provide feedback about this product.

This product is provided subject to this Notification and this Privacy & Use policy.

Was this document helpful?  Yes  |  Somewhat  |  No