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1. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
- CVSS v3 9.8
- ATTENTION: Exploitable remotely/low attack complexity
- Vendor: Siemens
- Equipment: TIM 4R-IE
- Vulnerabilities: Incorrect Type Conversion or Cast, Improper Input Validation, Improper Authentication, Security Features, Null Pointer Dereference, Data Processing Errors, Exposure of Sensitive Information to an Unauthorized Actor, Race Condition
2. RISK EVALUATION
Successful exploitation of these vulnerabilities could compromise the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the device.
3. TECHNICAL DETAILS
3.1 AFFECTED PRODUCTS
The following Siemens products TIM 4R-IE communication modules are affected:
- TIM 4R-IE (incl. SIPLUS NET variants): All versions
- TIM 4R-IE DNP3 (incl. SIPLUS NET variants): All versions
3.2 VULNERABILITY OVERVIEW
The ULOGTOD function in ntp.d in SNTP before 4.2.7p366 does not properly perform type conversions from a precision value to a double, which allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (infinite loop) via a crafted NTP packet.
The decodenetnum function in ntpd in NTP 4.2.x before 4.2.8p4 and 4.3.x before 4.3.77 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (assertion failure) via a 6 or mode 7 packet containing a long data value.
Crypto-NAK packets in ntpd in NTP 4.2.x before 4.2.8p4 and 4.3.x before 4.3.77 allows remote attackers to bypass authentication.
NTP before 4.2.8p6 and 4.3.x before 4.3.90, when configured in broadcast mode, allows man-in-the-middle attackers to conduct replay attacks by sniffing the network.
NTP 4.x before 4.2.8p6 and 4.3.x before 4.3.90 do not verify peer associations of symmetric keys when authenticating packets, which might allow remote attackers to conduct impersonation attacks via an arbitrary trusted key, aka a “skeleton key.”
ntpd in NTP before 4.2.8p6 and 4.3.x before 4.3.90 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (NULL pointer dereference) via a ntpdc reslist command.
NTP before 4.2.8p6 and 4.3.x before 4.3.90 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (client-server association tear down) by sending broadcast packets with invalid authentication to a broadcast client.
The rate limiting feature in NTP 4.x before 4.2.8p4 and 4.3.x before 4.3.77 allows remote attackers to have unspecified impact via a large number of crafted requests.
NTP before 4.2.8p6 and 4.3.x before 4.3.90 allows remote attackers to bypass the origin timestamp validation via a packet with an origin timestamp set to zero.
An off-path attacker can cause a preemptible client association to be demobilized in NTP 4.2.8p4 and earlier and NTPSec a5fb34b9cc89b92a8fef2f459004865c93bb7f92 by sending a crypto NAK packet to a victim client with a spoofed source address of an existing associated peer. This is true even if authentication is enabled.
An attacker can spoof a packet from a legitimate ntpd server with an origin timestamp that matches the peer->dst timestamp recorded for that server. After making this switch, the client in NTP 4.2.8p4 and earlier and NTPSec aa48d001683e5b791a743ec9c575aaf7d867a2b0c will reject all future legitimate server responses. It is possible to force the victim client to move time after the mode has been changed. ntpq gives no indication that the mode has been switched.
An exploitable vulnerability exists in the message authentication functionality of libntp in ntp 4.2.8p4 and NTPSec a5fb34b9cc89b92a8fef2f459004865c93bb7f92. An attacker can send a series of crafted messages to attempt to recover the message digest key.
ntpd in NTP 4.x before 4.2.8p8 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (ephemeralassociation demobilization) by sending a spoofed crypto-NAK packet with incorrect authentication data at a certain time.
3.2.14 CONCURRENT EXECUTION USING SHARED RESOURCE WITH IMPROPER SYNCHRONIZATION ('RACE CONDITION')CWE-362
The process_packet function in ntp_proto.c in ntpd in NTP 4.x before 4.2.8p8 allows remote attackers to cause a denial of service (peer-variable modification) by sending spoofed packets from many source IP addresses in a certain scenario, as demonstrated by triggering an incorrect leap indication.
- CRITICAL INFRASTRUCTURE SECTORS: Critical Manufacturing
- COUNTRIES/AREAS DEPLOYED: Worldwide
- COMPANY HEADQUARTERS LOCATION: Germany
Siemens reported these vulnerabilities to CISA.
Siemens has identified the following specific workarounds and mitigations users can apply to reduce the risk:
- Deactivate NTP-based time synchronization of the device, if enabled. The feature is disabled by default.
- Configure an additional firewall to prevent communication to the Port UDP/123 of an affected device.
- Migrate to a successor product.
As a general security measure, Siemens strongly recommends protecting network access to devices with appropriate mechanisms. In order to operate the devices in a protected IT environment, Siemens recommends configuring the environment according to Siemens operational guidelines for Industrial Security and following the recommendations in the product manuals.
For additional information, please refer to Siemens Security Advisory SSA-497656
CISA recommends users take defensive measures to minimize the risk of exploitation of this vulnerability. Specifically, users should:
- Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet.
- Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and isolate them from the business network.
- When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should be updated to the most current version available. Also recognize VPN is only as secure as its connected devices.
CISA reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.
CISA also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS webpage on us-cert.cisa.gov. Several recommended practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies.
Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available on the ICS webpage on us-cert.cisa.gov in the Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B--Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies.
Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to CISA for tracking and correlation against other incidents.
No known public exploits specifically target these vulnerabilities.
For any questions related to this report, please contact the CISA at:
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