All information products included in https://us-cert.cisa.gov/ics are provided "as is" for informational purposes only. The Department of Homeland Security (DHS) does not provide any warranties of any kind regarding any information contained within. DHS does not endorse any commercial product or service, referenced in this product or otherwise. Further dissemination of this product is governed by the Traffic Light Protocol (TLP) marking in the header. For more information about TLP, see https://us-cert.cisa.gov/tlp/.
This advisory was originally posted to the US-CERT secure Portal library on August 12, 2014, and is being released to the NCCIC/ICS-CERT web site.
Independent researcher Andrea Micalizzi identified an Improper Privilege Management vulnerability within Ecava’s IntegraXor SCADA Server and reported it to Zero Day Initiative (ZDI). ZDI reported the vulnerability to NCCIC/ICS-CERT. Independent researcher Alain Homewood identified three other vulnerabilities in the Ecava’s IntegraXor SCADA Server. Ecava has produced a patch that mitigates these vulnerabilities. Alain Homewood has tested the patch to validate that it resolves the vulnerabilities he has identified.
These vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely.
The following Ecava products are affected:
- IntegraXor SCADA Server v4.1.4360 (latest stable release) and earlier versions, and
- IntegraXor SCADA Server v4.1.4392 (latest beta release) and earlier versions.
These vulnerabilities allow an attacker to read and modify files and database records on the Ecava IntegraXor SCADA server. This could allow an attacker to read previously exported reports and files on the server; overwrite reports and files; read and modify records in the database, including tables that users do not typically have access to; create large files to cause a denial of service; and write malicious files that can be leveraged to further attack a system.
Impact to individual organizations depends on many factors that are unique to each organization. ICS-CERT recommends that organizations evaluate the impact of these vulnerabilities based on their operational environment, architecture, and product implementation.
Ecava Sdn Bhd (Ecava) is a Malaysia-based software development company that provides the IntegraXor SCADA product. Ecava specializes in factory and process automation solutions.
IntegraXor is a suite of tools used to create and run a web-based human-machine interface for a SCADA system. IntegraXor is currently used in several areas of process control in 38 countries, with the largest installations based in the United Kingdom, the United States, Australia, Poland, Canada, and Estonia.
EXTERNAL CONTROL OF FILE NAME OR PATHa
IntegraXor has the ability to export various reports to CSV files. An attacker could manipulate this functionality to read and write any file as an unauthenticated user. This could cause a loss of confidentiality in logs, reports, and configuration settings. Denial of service can also be generated by creating large-sized files on the server. Malicious files can be uploaded and leveraged as part of a cross-site request forgery attack against authorized users.
Ecava IntegraXor makes use of several back end SQL databases. Reading and writing data to the logging and report databases is less secure because it was intended that unauthenticated users would be able to read logs and be able to read and delete reports. By manipulating SQL queries, an attacker could read arbitrary files from the server, connect to other SQL databases, and read data from tables that are normally restricted. An attacker could cause a denial of service by writing a large amount of data to the database or by manipulating the SQL query to be computationally complex. In addition with this access, an attacker could manipulate data within the tables, including configuration data.
Ecava IntegraXor includes built-in application tags. These application tags disclose information that could be used to identify full path names of files, which can be leveraged with the SQL Injection vulnerability.
IMPROPER PRIVILEGE MANAGEMENTk
Ecava IntegraXor’s SQL database allows for the guest user to execute select queries and potentially upload malicious files.
These vulnerabilities could be exploited remotely.
EXISTENCE OF EXPLOIT
No known public exploits specifically target these vulnerabilities.
An attacker with a low skill would be able to exploit these vulnerabilities.
Ecava has produced a patch to address all four vulnerabilities identified. The patch can be downloaded from:
ICS-CERT encourages asset owners to take additional defensive measures to protect against this and other cybersecurity risks.
- Minimize network exposure for all control system devices and/or systems, and ensure that they are not accessible from the Internet.
- Locate control system networks and remote devices behind firewalls, and isolate them from the business network.
- When remote access is required, use secure methods, such as Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), recognizing that VPNs may have vulnerabilities and should be updated to the most current version available. Also recognize that VPN is only as secure as the connected devices.
ICS-CERT also provides a section for control systems security recommended practices on the ICS-CERT web page at http://ics-cert.us-cert.gov/content/recommended-practices. Several recommended practices are available for reading and download, including Improving Industrial Control Systems Cybersecurity with Defense-in-Depth Strategies. ICS-CERT reminds organizations to perform proper impact analysis and risk assessment prior to deploying defensive measures.
Additional mitigation guidance and recommended practices are publicly available in the ICS‑CERT Technical Information Paper, ICS-TIP-12-146-01B—Targeted Cyber Intrusion Detection and Mitigation Strategies, that is available for download from the ICS-CERT web site (www.ics-cert.org).
Organizations observing any suspected malicious activity should follow their established internal procedures and report their findings to ICS-CERT for tracking and correlation against other incidents.
- aCWE-73: External Control of File Name or Path, http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/73.html, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- bNVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2014-2375, NIST uses this advisory to create the CVE web site report. This web site will be active sometime after publication of this advisory.
- cCVSS Calculator, http://nvd.nist.gov/cvss.cfm?version=2&vector=AV:N/AC:M/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:C, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- dCWE-89: SQL Injection, http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/89.html, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- eNVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2014-2376, NIST uses this advisory to create the CVE web site report. This web site will be active sometime after publication of this advisory.
- fCVSS Calculator, http://nvd.nist.gov/cvss.cfm?version=2&vector=AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:P, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- gCWE-526: Information Exposure Through Environmental Variables, http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/526.html, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- hCWE-532: Information Exposure Through Log Files, http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/532.html, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- iNVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2014-2377, NIST uses this advisory to create the CVE web site report. This web site will be active sometime after publication of this advisory.
- jCVSS Calculator, http://nvd.nist.gov/cvss.cfm?version=2&vector=AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:N/A:N, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- kCWE-269: Improper Privilege Management, http://cwe.mitre.org/data/definitions/269.html, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- lNVD, http://web.nvd.nist.gov/view/vuln/detail?vulnId=CVE-2014-0786, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
- mCVSS Calculator, http://nvd.nist.gov/cvss.cfm?version=2&vector=AV:N/AC:L/Au:N/C:P/I:P/A:P, web site last accessed September 11, 2014.
For any questions related to this report, please contact the CISA at:
Toll Free: 1-888-282-0870
CISA continuously strives to improve its products and services. You can help by choosing one of the links below to provide feedback about this product.
Please share your thoughts.
We recently updated our anonymous product survey; we'd welcome your feedback.